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We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic obesity phenotypes with all-cause mortality risk in a rural Chinese population. This prospective cohort study enrolled 15 704 Chinese adults (38·86 % men) with a median age of 51·00 (interquartile range: 41·00–60·00) at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Obesity was defined by waist circumference (WC: ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR: ≥ 0·5). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of all-cause mortality related to metabolic obesity phenotypes were calculated using the Cox hazards regression model. During a median follow-up of 6·01 years, 864 deaths were identified. When obesity was defined by WC, the prevalence of participants with metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) at baseline was 12·12 %, 2·80 %, 41·93 % and 43·15 %, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity and education, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher with both MUNO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·26) and MUO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·27) v. MHNO, but the risk was not statistically significant with MHO (HR = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·89, 1·10). This result remained consistent when stratified by sex. Defining obesity by WHtR gave similar results. MHO does not suggest a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to MHNO, but participants with metabolic abnormality, with or without obesity, have a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results should be cautiously interpreted as the representation of MHO is small.
The present work was performed to analyse the association of dietary patterns with glycaemic control (Hb A1c < 7 %) in a large group of Chinese adults aged between 45 and 59 years.
Habitual dietary intakes in the preceding 12 months were assessed by well-trained interviewers using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis with principal component method was used to obtain the dietary patterns, and the associations between dietary patterns and glycaemic control were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Poor glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥ 7·0.
Despite decades of research, data on the relationship between dietary patterns and glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7 %) in China are sparse.
A total of 1739 participants aged 45–59 years from Hangzhou were included in the final analysis.
Three dietary patterns were ascertained and labelled as traditional southern Chinese, Western and grains-vegetables patterns. After controlling of the possible confounders, participants in the highest quartile of Western pattern scores had greater OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 1·05; (95 % CI 1·000, 1·095); P = 0·048) than did those in the lowest quartile. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of grains-vegetables pattern, participants in the highest quartile had lower OR for HbA1c ≥ 7·0 (OR = 0·82; (95 % CI 0·720, 0·949); P = 0·038). Besides, no significant relationship between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and HbA1c ≥ 7·0 was observed (P > 0·05).
This study indicated that the Western pattern was associated with a higher risk, and the grains-vegetables pattern was associated with a lower risk for HbA1c ≥ 7·0. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
The present study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with tryptophan (Trp) on muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. Fish were fed six different diets containing 2·6 (control), 3·1, 3·7, 4·2, 4·7 and 5·6 g Trp/kg diet for 56 d, respectively. Results showed that dietary Trp significantly (1) improved muscle protein content, fibre density and frequency of fibre diameter; (2) up-regulated the mRNA levels of PCNA, myf5, MyoD1, MyoG, MRF4, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, PIK3Ca, TOR, 4EBP1 and S6K1; (3) increased phosphorylation levels of AKT, TOR and S6K1; (4) decreased contents of MDA and PC, and increased activities of CAT, GST, GR, ASA and AHR; (5) up-regulated mRNA levels of CuZnSOD, CAT, GST, GPx, GCLC and Nrf2, and decreased Keap1 mRNA level; (6) increased nuclear Nrf2 protein level and the intranuclear antioxidant response element-binding ability, and reduced Keap1 protein level. These results indicated that dietary Trp improved muscle growth, protein synthesis as well as antioxidant capacity, which might be partly related to myogenic regulatory factors, IGF/PIK3Ca/AKT/TOR and Keap1/Nrf2 signalling pathways. Finally, based on the quadratic regression analysis of muscle protein and MDA contents, the optimal Trp requirements of hybrid catfish (21·82–39·64 g) were estimated to be 3·94 and 3·93 g Trp/kg diet (9·57 and 9·54 g/kg of dietary protein), respectively.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is one of the most dynamic components of the global climate system. Although poorly understood, knowledge of long-term spatial differences in EAWM variability during the glacial–interglacial cycles is important for understanding the dynamic processes of the EAWM. We reconstructed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the EAWM since the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a comparison of proxy records and long-term transient simulations. A loess grain-size record from northern China (a sensitive EAWM proxy) and the sea surface temperature gradient of an EAWM index in sediments of the southern South China Sea were compared. The data–model comparison indicates pronounced spatial differences in EAWM evolution, with a weakened EAWM since the LGM in northern China but a strengthened EAWM from the LGM to the early Holocene, followed by a weakening trend, in southern China. The model results suggest that variations in the EAWM in northern China were driven mainly by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, whereas orbital insolation and ice sheets were important drivers in southern China. We propose that the relative importance of insolation, ice sheets, and atmospheric CO2 for EAWM evolution varied spatially within East Asia.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10 304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. We identified 2072 hypertension cases during a median of 6·03 years of follow-up. The RR for the highest v. lowest CVAI quartile were 1·29 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·59) for men and 1·53 (95 % CI 1·22, 1·91) for women. Per-sd increase in CVAI was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·09, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·16) and women (RR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0·05). Finally, per-sd increase in CVAI change was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·36) and women (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity, diabetes, and allergy are chronic, multi-factorial conditions that are affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Over the last decade, the microbiome has emerged as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of NCDs. Microbiome profiles were altered in patients with NCDs, and shift in microbial communities was associated with improvement in these health conditions. Since the genetic component of these diseases cannot be altered, the ability to manipulate the microbiome holds great promise for design of novel therapies in the prevention and treatment of NCDs. Together, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept and the microbial hypothesis propose that early life exposure to environmental stimuli will alter the development and composition of the human microbiome, resulting in health consequences. Recent studies indicated that the environment we are exposed to in early life is instrumental in shaping robust immune development, possibly through modulation of the human microbiome (skin, airway, and gut). Despite much research into human microbiome, the origin of their constituent microbiota remains unclear. Dust (also known as particulate matter) is a key determinant of poor air quality in the modern urban environment. It is ubiquitous and serves as a major source and reservoir of microbial communities that modulates the human microbiome, contributing to health and disease. There are evidence that reported significant associations between environmental dust and NCDs. In this review, we will focus on the impact of dust exposure in shaping the human microbiome and its possible contribution to the development of NCDs.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
Metabolically healthy obesity refers to a subset of obese people with a normal metabolic profile. We aimed to explore the association between metabolically healthy and obesity status and risk of hypertension among Chinese adults from The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. This prospective cohort study enrolled 9137 Chinese adults without hypertension, type 2 diabetes or treatment for lipid abnormality at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the risk of hypertension by different metabolically healthy and obesity status, estimating relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 6 years of follow-up, we identified 1734 new hypertension cases (721 men). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking and other confounding factors, risk of hypertension was increased with metabolically healthy general obesity (MHGO) defined by BMI (RR 1·75, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·00) and metabolically healthy abdominal obesity (MHAO) defined by waist circumference (RR 1·51, 95 % CI 1·12, 2·04) as compared with metabolically healthy non-obesity. The associations between metabolically healthy and obesity status and hypertension outcome were consistent after stratifying by sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. Both MHGO and MHAO were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Obesity control programmes should be implemented to prevent or delay the development of hypertension in rural China.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for thiamphenicol, C12H15Cl2NO5S, are reported [a = 17.346(3), b = 15.341(0), c = 5.790 (2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1540.8(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for letrozole, C17H11N5, are reported [a = 7.034(0) Å, b = 16.177(5) Å, c = 13.411(3) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 105.71(9)°, unit-cell volume V = 1469.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Transistors in the traditional field effect geometry operate by the injection of mobile carriers – electrons or holes – from a source reservoir to the drain reservoir through a conducting channel region. The carriers enter the channel region by surmounting an electrostatic potential barrier. The gate electrode controls the height of this barrier capacitively. The carriers in the source reservoir are in thermal equilibrium with the source contact. This means that the carriers, say electrons, are distributed in energy in the conduction band according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution f(E = 1/1[1+exp((E − EF)/kT)]. The Maxwell–Boltzmann approximation f(E) ~ exp[− E/kT] of the Fermi–Dirac distribution for large energies represents the high-energy tail of the distribution. There are electrons in this tail with energy higher than the potential barrier; the gate cannot stop them from being injected into the channel. This leads to a sub-threshold “leakage” drain current ID ~ exp[qVGS / kT], which leads to the well-known sub-threshold slope (S) requirement of S ~ (kT / q)ln10 ~ 60 mV/dec change of current. Methods to make the SS steeper than the 300 K value of 60 mV/dec value are expected to substantially lower the power dissipation in digital logic and computation [1, 2]. The methods must explore novel mechanisms of charge transport, or of electrostatic gating. This chapter focuses on transport.
The high-energy tail of electrons exists because of the available density of states (DOS) DC(E) of the conduction band; the electron distribution in energy is n(E) = DC(E)f(E). If the DOS were cut off, there would be no tail, and it is possible to obtain S less than 60 mV/dec. This sort of energy filtering is possible if we replace the n-type source for electrons by a p-type source, which has a valence band maximum and zero DOS above. For injection into the channel of the n-FET, the electrons cannot undergo the traditional drift/diffusion process, but have to quantum mechanically tunnel through the bandgap. This energy-filtering scheme to achieve sub-60 mV/dec switching is the central idea behind the tunneling FET (or TFET).
High-protein diets are popular for weight management, but the health effects of such diets in diabetic persons are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of high-protein diets on body weight and metabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomised trials up to August 2012. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to combine the net changes in each outcome from baseline to the end of the intervention. Overall, nine trials including a total of 418 diabetic patients met our inclusion criteria. The study duration ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. The actual intake of dietary protein ranged from 25 to 32 % of total energy in the intervention groups and from 15 to 20 % in the control groups. Compared with the control diets, high-protein diets resulted in more weight loss (pooled mean difference: − 2·08, 95 % CI − 3·25, − 0·90 kg). High-protein diets significantly decreased glycated Hb A1C (HbA1C) levels by 0·52 (95 % CI − 0·90, − 0·14) %, but did not affect the fasting blood glucose levels. There were no differences in lipid profiles. The pooled net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were − 3·13 (95 % CI − 6·58, 0·32) mmHg and − 1·86 (95 % CI − 4·26, 0·56) mmHg, respectively. However, two studies reported a large influence on weight loss and HbA1C levels, respectively. In summary, high-protein diets (within 6 months) may have some beneficial effects on weight loss, HbA1C levels and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigations are still required to draw a conclusion.
A general least-squares technique for X-ray diffraction line broadening analysis has been developed. The technique can be used to determine single, double, and triple line broadening effects caused by small particle sizes, microstrain, stacking faults, or all three presented in a closed-packed hexagonal nanomaterial. The technique was applied to characterize the microstructure of β-Ni(OH)2, a negative electrode material in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. Double line broadening effects caused by both small crystallite sizes and stacking faults in β-Ni(OH)2 were detected and analyzed. Triple line broadening effects caused simultaneously by small crystallite sizes, microstrain, and stacking faults were detected in β-Ni(OH)2 after activation and charge-discharge cycle tests. The triple line broadening effects were found to be selective and most pronounced for diffraction lines with h−k=3n±1. The broadening effects were larger when l=even, but smaller when l=odd. The shape and the average size of the crystallites, microstrain, and stacking fault probability in β-Ni(OH)2 changed dramatically after activation and charge-discharge cycles. The method was also applied to characterize and investigate the microstructure of nano ZnO materials. Results indicate that no selective broadening appears in the XRD patterns of the nano ZnO materials. The average crystallite sizes were different slightly, and the stacking fault probabilities differed significantly with different dopants.
Miniature pigs are valuable for research in xenotransplantation and as models for investigating human diseases. Although many mammalian species have been cloned, the success rates have been very low, especially in the pig. In the present study, an attempt was made to optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocols for use in the production of the Guangxi Bama mini-pig. Firstly, mini-pig fibroblast cells from a new-born Guangxi Bama piglet were isolated and cultured. Cell type was identified by fluorescence immunocytochemistry (ICC); the cells expressed cimentin, but not cytoceratin and follicular stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR). Secondly, the optimal cell cycle synchronization protocol for treating fibroblast cells from the newborn piglet's testicle was investigated by contact inhibition and serum starvation. When fibroblast cells were treated by contact inhibition, a higher fusion (66.0% vs. 58.3%, p > 0.05) and blastocyst production (20.8% vs. 15.1, p > 0.05) rates were obtained than with serum starvation. Thirdly, to examine the ability of old cells to be morphologically remodelled after activation, testicular fibroblasts (passage 10–14) were introduced into enucleated oocytes; enlarged nuclei were formed in most of the reconstructed embryos at 6 h and enlarged nuclei or distinct pseudopronuclei were formed in nearly all the reconstructed embryos at 12 h. The old donor cell could be morphologically remodelled correctly and was competent to support embryo development to the blastocyst in vitro. Fourthly, the in vitro development potential of the cloned embryos was investigated using two types of donor cell: ear fibroblasts and low or high passage testicular fibroblasts. The rate of fusion was highest using low passage testicle fibroblasts (84.5% vs. 69.8% and 80.0%, p < 0.05), as was development to the blastocyst stage (14.6% vs. 7.7% and 6.3%, p < 0.05). Finally, the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) on parthenogenetic and cloned embryo development was examined. The PHA had no significant effect on the parthenogenetic embryos, but cloned embryo development to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased by PHA (10μg/ml), (13.4% vs. 5.6% and 5.6%, p < 0.05).
Terminus fluctuation and area change in mountain glaciers in the middle Chinese Tien Shan over the past four decades are examined, based on Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Système Probatoire pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) highresolution visible (HRV) imagery, topographical maps and China Glacier Inventory data using Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote-sensing techniques. This study shows that the glaciers in the study area have undergone continuous recession between 1963 and 2000. Over the past 37 years the total glacier area decreased from 55 × 106 m2 to 48 × 106 m2 (a 13% decrease). The glaciers at low elevations decreased more rapidly than those at high elevations. Seven of the ten large valley glaciers in the study area retreated by at least 150 ± 49 m during this period. The average rate of recession for these glaciers was 4–8 m a−1. The recession rate between 1986 and 2000 was larger than between 1963 and 1986. The glacier changes in the study area were similar to those in the Ürümqi river basin in the northern Chinese Tien Shan. It is apparent that temperature rise over the past four decades has had a profound impact on these glaciers.
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