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Pomatomus saltatrix is a high-value marine pelagic coastal fish, that is fished throughout subtropical and temperate coastal waters around the world. Despite its large economic potential, there are no global data on its genetic diversity, which could compromise the conservation of the species. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic-evolutionary structuring of the species, with the intention of evaluating different genetic P. saltatrix stocks that may indicate potential species. Based on 157 Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 sequences, the molecular delimitation analyses of species (distance and coalescence methods), as well as the haplotype network, found profound geographic structuring related to five distinct units with high and significant FST pairwise values. The divergence of these molecular units is mostly related to the Pleistocene glacial and interglacial cycles of climatic oscillations. It is hypothesized that one ancestral lineage, adapted to cold water environments, diversified into two lineages, with one more adapted to warmer environments. The high values of global genetic diversity (π = 0.016; h = 0.96) may be related to the existing profound genetic differentiation. Due to the presence of five Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) within the species it is necessary to employ different regional management strategies. Traits of low haplotype richness and shallow population contraction were identified in the MOTUs V (Venezuela and Brazil) and III (Turkey and Australia), respectively, representing conservation priorities. Other molecular markers, as well as morphological data, should be explored with the aim of defining the taxonomic status of P. saltatrix stocks.
There is still little knowledge of objective suicide risk stratification.
This study aims to develop models using machine-learning approaches to predict suicide attempt (1) among survey participants in a nationally representative sample and (2) among participants with lifetime major depressive episodes. We used a cohort called the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) that was conducted in two waves and included a nationally representative sample of the adult population in the United States. Wave 1 involved 43 093 respondents and wave 2 involved 34 653 completed face-to-face reinterviews with wave 1 participants. Predictor variables included clinical, stressful life events, and sociodemographic variables from wave 1; outcome included suicide attempt between wave 1 and wave 2.
The model built with elastic net regularization distinguished individuals who had attempted suicide from those who had not with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89, balanced accuracy 81.86%, specificity 89.22%, and sensitivity 74.51% for the general population. For participants with lifetime major depressive episodes, AUC was 0.89, balanced accuracy 81.64%, specificity 85.86%, and sensitivity 77.42%. The most important predictor variables were a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and being of Asian descent for the model in all participants; and previous suicide attempt, borderline personality disorder, and overnight stay in hospital because of depressive symptoms for the model in participants with lifetime major depressive episodes. Random forest and artificial neural networks had similar performance.
Risk for suicide attempt can be estimated with high accuracy.
In 1940, the Portuguese government approved a massive primary school construction plan that projected a 60 per cent increase in the number of primary schools. Based on the collection of a new dataset, we describe literacy levels in Portugal prior to the plan as well as the plan's strategy regarding the location of schools. We then estimate the causal impact of the increase in the number of schools between 1940 and the early 60s on enrolment and literacy, all at the county level. We conclude the increase in the number of schools was responsible for 80 per cent of the increase in enrolment and 13 per cent of the increase in the literacy rate of the affected cohorts.
Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to oxidative stresses during its life cycle, and amongst the strategies employed by this parasite to deal with these situations sits a peculiar trypanothione-dependent antioxidant system. Remarkably, T. cruzi’s antioxidant repertoire does not include catalase. In an attempt to shed light on what are the reasons by which this parasite lacks this enzyme, a T. cruzi cell line stably expressing catalase showed an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when compared with wild-type cells. Interestingly, preconditioning carried out with low concentrations of H2O2 led untransfected parasites to be as much resistant to this oxidant as cells expressing catalase, but did not induce the same level of increased resistance in the latter ones. Also, presence of catalase decreased trypanothione reductase and increased superoxide dismutase levels in T. cruzi, resulting in higher levels of residual H2O2 after challenge with this oxidant. Although expression of catalase contributed to elevated proliferation rates of T. cruzi in Rhodnius prolixus, it failed to induce a significant increase of parasite virulence in mice. Altogether, these results indicate that the absence of a gene encoding catalase in T. cruzi has played an important role in allowing this parasite to develop a shrill capacity to sense and overcome oxidative stress.
Background: Dystrophinopathies are X-linked muscular dystrophies characterized by pathogenic mutations in the dystrophin gene. Symptomatic dystrophinopathy female carriers may present with limb-girdle weakness. The diagnosis may be challenging in the absence of affected male relatives. We aimed to describe the phenotypic variability in a series of molecular-confirmed female dystrophinopathy patients. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of medical records from 1997 to 2015. Results: Ten female dystrophinopathy patients were selected, two with unusual phenotypes: one with early joint contractures muscular dystrophy and the other with very late onset myopathy. Muscle imaging studies demonstrated predominant asymmetric fat replacement. Muscle biopsy immunohistochemistry demonstrated clear mosaic pattern in two cases and only subtle reduction of dystrophin intensity in three. Conclusions: Adequate diagnosis is fundamental for genetic counseling and cardiologic follow-up. Female patients with dystrophinopathy may present unusual phenotypes such as early contractures and very late onset myopathy.
The present study determined the prevalence, hematological findings and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in domestic cats from Valdivia, Southern Chile. A complete blood count and nuoG gene real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Bartonella spp. were performed in 370 blood samples from cats in Valdivia, Southern Chile. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were submitted to conventional PCR for the gltA gene and sequencing for species differentiation and phylogenetic analysis. Alignment of gltA gene was used to calculate the nucleotide diversity, polymorphic level, number of variable sites and average number of nucleotide differences. Bartonella DNA prevalence in cats was 18·1% (67/370). Twenty-nine samples were sequenced with 62·0% (18/29) identified as Bartonella henselae, 34·4% (10/29) as Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 3·4% (1/29) as Bartonella koehlerae. Bartonella-positive cats had low DNA bacterial loads and their hematological parameters varied minimally. Each Bartonella species from Chile clustered together and with other Bartonella spp. described in cats worldwide. Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae showed a low number of variable sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity. Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae are reported for the first time in cats from Chile and South America, respectively.
The behavior of nanostructures under high strain-rate conditions has been object of interest in recent years. For instance, recent experimental investigations showed that at high velocity impacts carbon nanotubes can unzip resulting into graphene nanoribbons. Carbon nanoscrolls (CNS) are among the structures whose high impact behavior has not yet been investigated. CNS are graphene membranes rolled up into papyrus-like structures. Their unique open-ended topology leads to properties not found in close-ended structures, such as nanotubes. Here we report a fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics study on the behavior of CNS colliding at high velocities against solid targets. Our results show that the velocity and scroll axis orientation are key parameters to determine the resulting formed nanostructures after impact. The relative orientation of the scroll open ends and the substrate is also very important. We observed that for appropriate velocities and orientations, the nanoscrolls can experience large structural deformations and large-scale fractures. We have also observed unscrolling (scrolls going back to planar or quasi-planar graphene membranes), unzip resulting into nanoribbons, and significant reconstructions from breaking and/or formation of new chemical bonds. Another interesting result was that if the CNS impact the substrate with their open ends, for certain velocities, fused scroll walls were observed.
In this work we use a three-dimensional Pauli master equation to investigate the charge carrier mobility of a two-phase system, which can mimic donor-acceptor and amorphous-crystalline bulk heterojunctions. Our approach can be separated into two parts: the morphology generation and the charge transport modeling in the generated blend. The morphology part is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of binary mixtures (donor/acceptor). The second part is carried out by numerically solving the steady-state Pauli master equation. By taking the energetic disorder of each phase, their energy offset and domain morphology into consideration, we show that the carrier mobility can have a significant different behavior when compared to a one-phase system. When the energy offset is non-zero, we show that the mobility electric field dependence switches from negative to positive at a threshold field proportional to the energy offset. Additionally, the influence of morphology, through the domain size and the interfacial roughness parameters, on the transport was also investigated.