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The second and final year of the Erasmus Plus programme ‘Innovative Education and Training in high power laser plasmas’, otherwise known as PowerLaPs, is described. The PowerLaPs programme employs an innovative paradigm in that it is a multi-centre programme, where teaching takes place in five separate institutes with a range of different aims and styles of delivery. The ‘in-class’ time is limited to 4 weeks a year, and the programme spans 2 years. PowerLaPs aims to train students from across Europe in theoretical, applied and laboratory skills relevant to the pursuit of research in laser plasma interaction physics and inertial confinement fusion. Lectures are intermingled with laboratory sessions and continuous assessment activities. The programme, which is led by workers from the Hellenic Mediterranean University and supported by co-workers from the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University in Prague, Ecole Polytechnique, the University of Ioannina, the University of Salamanca and the University of York, has just finished its second and final year. Six Learning Teaching Training activities have been held at the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University, the University of Salamanca and the Institute of Plasma Physics and Lasers of the Hellenic Mediterranean University. The last of these institutes hosted two 2-week-long Intensive Programmes, while the activities at the other four universities were each 5 days in length. In addition, a ‘Multiplier Event’ was held at the University of Ioannina, which will be briefly described. In this second year, the work has concentrated on training in both experimental diagnostics and simulation techniques appropriate to the study of plasma physics, high power laser matter interactions and high energy density physics. The nature of the programme will be described in detail, and some metrics relating to the activities carried out will be presented. In particular, this paper will focus on the overall assessment of the programme.
The aim of the present work is to develop a general formalism to derive staggered discretizations for Lagrangian hydrodynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids. To this end, we make use of the compatible discretization that has been initially introduced by E. J. Caramana et al., in J. Comput. Phys., 146 (1998). Namely, momentum equation is discretized by means of subcell forces and specific internal energy equation is obtained using total energy conservation. The main contribution of this work lies in the fact that the subcell force is derived invoking Galilean invariance and thermodynamic consistency. That is, we deduce a general form of the sub-cell force so that a cell entropy inequality is satisfied. The subcell force writes as a pressure contribution plus a tensorial viscous contribution which is proportional to the difference between the nodal velocity and the cell-centered velocity. This cell-centered velocity is a supplementary degree of freedom that is solved by means of a cell-centered approximate Riemann solver. To satisfy the second law of thermodynamics, the local subcell tensor involved in the viscous part of the subcell force must be symmetric positive definite. This subcell tensor is the cornerstone of the scheme. One particular expression of this tensor is given. A high-order extension of this discretization is provided. Numerical tests are presented in order to assess the efficiency of this approach. The results obtained for various representative configurations of one and two-dimensional compressible fluid flows show the robustness and the accuracy of this scheme.
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