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Pregnant individuals who overeat are more likely to predispose their fetus to the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Physical training is a prevention and treatment interventional strategy that could treat these disorders, since it improves metabolism and body composition. This study assessed the protective effect of physical exercise against possible metabolic changes in generations F1 and F2, whose mothers were subjected to a high-sugar/high-fat (HS/HF) diet. Wistar rats belonging to generation F0 were distributed into four groups (n = 10): sedentary control (CSed), exercised control (CExe), sedentary HS/HF diet (DHSed) and exercised HS/HF diet (DHExe). From 21 to 120 days of age, maintained during pregnancy and lactation period, CSed/CExe animals received standard feed and DHSed/DHExe animals a HS/HF diet. Animals from the CExe/DHExe underwent physical training from 21 to 120 days of age. Male and female F1 and F2 received a normocaloric feed and did not perform any physical training, categorized into four groups (n = 10) according to the maternal group to which they belonged to. An increase in body weight, adiposity and glucose, and a change in lipid profile in F0 were observed, while exercise reduced the biochemical parameters comparing DHSed with DHExe. Maternal exercise had an effect on future generations, reducing adiposity, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and preventing deleterious effects on glucose tolerance. Maternal overeating increased health risks both for mother and offspring, demonstrating that an HS/HF diet intake promotes metabolic alterations in the offspring. Importantly, the physical training performed by F0 proved to be protective against such effects.
To detect the occurrence of surgical-site infection (SSI) in our study sample, using the traditional variables of the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) index with a locally modified cut-off point for the “T time” defining length of surgical procedure; to compare the modified and the traditional NNIS index under the hypothesis that a cut-off point discriminating procedures of short and long duration, based upon the actual experience of the study sample, can adequately predict the risk of SSI.
A retrospective chart review of 9,322 patients undergoing surgical procedures in the period January 1993 to December 1998.
A small university hospital (UH) in southern Brazil.
The composite index using the local sample procedure-duration cut-off point (UH-index) performed better than any of the individual components of the composite index (anesthesia risk index and surgical-wound class [SWC]). The UH-index also predicted adequately the risk of SSI when compared to the traditional NNIS index, particularly when stratifying by SWC.
A modified NNIS index, using the sample cut-off point, can adequately predict the risk of SSI in a given population. Further studies are needed to compare and validate the NNIS index of risk for populations other than those of the NNIS-participating hospitals. Larger samples using different hospitals with similar characteristics are needed to investigate the risk of SSI associated with specific operations.
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