To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A 73-year-old Brazilian, right-handed man, retired business manager, began having progressively cognitive and behavioral disorders for the past 5 years. His family noticed some behavioral changes, as he presented with great irritability, usage of bad language, profound inhibition, apathy, and unprecedented religious interests (hyper-religiosity). He had no history of hallucinations. During the consultation, the patient recurrently said in a delirious speech that he was a “disgrace,” that he was disturbing his wife and family, and it would be a relief if he died. His conversation was predominantly melancholic and mostly about self-centered themes.
The patient is a 58-year-old-right-handed man, with 11 years of schooling. A retired bank manager, he presented in May 2011 with a 3-year history of progressive word-finding difficulties and phonological errors in spontaneous speech.
Normative data should consider sociodemographic diversity for the accurate diagnosis of cognitive impairment. This study aims to provide normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery and present diagnostic criteria for cognitive impairment that could be used in primary care settings.
We selected 9618 Brazilian middle-aged and older adults after detailed exclusion criteria to avoid subtle cognitive impairment. We analyzed age, sex, and education influence on cognitive performance. To verify the evidence of criterion validity, we compared the cognitive performance of subjects with and without a depressive episode. Additionally, we verified the percentage of spurious scores under three different cutoffs.
Age and education had the greatest impact on cognition. Normative scores were provided according to age and education groups. Participants with a depressive episode performed poorer than control subjects. The clinical cutoff of at least two scores below the 7th percentile revealed the adequate percentage of spurious and possible clinical performance.
The Longitudinal Study on Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) provided normative data based on a unique selected set of cognitively normal subjects. Normative groups were selected based on age and education, and the battery was sensitive to the presence of a depressive episode. We suggested clinical cutoffs for the tests in this battery that could be used in primary care settings to improve the accurate diagnosis of cognitive impairment.
Cognitive tests of inhibitory control show variable results for the differential diagnosis between behavioural variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the diagnostic accuracies of tests of inhibitory control and of a behavioural questionnaire, to distinguish bvFTD from AD.
Three groups of participants were enrolled: 27 bvFTD patients, 25 AD patients, and 24 healthy controls. Groups were matched for gender, education, and socio-economic level. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of inhibitory control, including Hayling Test, Stroop, the Five Digits Test (FDT) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDT). Caregivers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11).
bvFTD and AD groups showed no difference in the tasks of inhibitory control, while the caregiver questionnaire revealed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive (BIS-11: bvFTD 76.1+9.5, AD 62.9+13, p < .001).
Neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control failed to distinguish bvFTD from AD. On the contrary, impulsivity caregiver-completed questionnaire provided good distinction between bvFTD and AD. These results highlight the current limits of cognitive measures of inhibitory control for the differential diagnosis between bvFTD and AD, whereas questionnaire information appears more reliable and in line with clinical diagnostics.
Social cognition tasks, such as identification of emotions, can contribute to the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. The wide use of Facial Emotion Recognition Test (FERT) is hampered by the absence of normative dataset and by the limited understanding of how demographic factors such as age, education, gender, and cultural background may influence the performance on the test.
We analyzed the influence of these variables in the performance in the FERT from the short version of the Social and Emotional Assessment. This task is composed by 35 pictures with 7 different emotions presented 5 times each. Cognitively healthy Brazilian participants (n = 203; 109 females and 94 males) underwent the FERT. We compared the performance of participants across gender, age, and educational subgroups. We also compared the performance of Brazilians with a group of French subjects (n = 60) matched for gender, age, and educational level.
There was no gender difference regarding the performance on total score and in each emotion subscore in the Brazilian sample. We found a significant effect of aging and schooling on the performance on the FERT, with younger and more educated subjects having higher scores. Brazilian and French participants did not differ in the FERT and its subscores. Normative data for employing the FERT in Brazilian population is presented.
Data here provided may contribute to the interpretation of the results of FERT in different cultural contexts and highlight the common bias that should be corrected in the future tasks to be developed.
Individuals with late-life depression (LLD) may present cognitive symptoms. We sought to determine whether a brief cognitive battery (BCB) could identify cognitive and functional deficits in oldest-old individuals with LLD and a low level of education.
We evaluated 639 community-dwelling individuals aged 75+ years in Caeté (MG), Brazil. We used the MINI and GDS-15 to diagnose major depression and evaluate its severity, respectively. The cognitive evaluation comprised the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), BCB, clock-drawing test, category fluency test (animals) and Pfeffer's Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ).
Fifty-four (11.6%) of the included individuals were diagnosed with LLD; on average, these participants were aged 81.0 ± 4.8 years and had 3.9 ± 3.4 years of schooling, and 77.8% of the subjects with LLD were female. Depressed individuals scored lower than subjects without dementia/depression on the MMSE overall (p < 0.001) and on several of the MMSE subscales, namely, time (p < 0.001) and spatial orientation (p = 0.021), attention/calculation (p = 0.019), and language (p = 0.004). Individuals with LLD performed worse on the incidental and (p = 0.011) immediate memory (p = 0.046) and learning tasks (p = 0.039) of the BCB. Individuals with LLD also performed worse on the category fluency test (p = 0.006), clock-drawing test (p = 0.011) and FAQ (p < 0.001). Depression severity was negatively correlated with incidental memory (ρ = −0.412; p = 0.003) and positively correlated with FAQ score (ρ = 0.308; p = 0.035). In the multiple regression analysis, only temporal orientation and FAQ score remained independently associated with LLD.
Individuals with depression and a low level of education presented several cognitive and functional deficits. Depression severity was negatively correlated with incidental memory and functionality. Our findings serve as a description of the presence of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with LLD and suggest that these deficits may be identified based on the results of a BCB.
This chapter talks about a 30-year-old man who was referred in 2001 to a neurologist because of memory complaints affecting his ability to perform at work as a cashier in a liquor store. His latest assessment in 01/2010 showed some dysarthria, dragging of his left leg during ambulation, mild face bradykinesia, hyperreflexia of all four limbs, equivocal left plantar response, unsustained clonus of both ankles, and decreased foot tapping bilaterally. There was much hesitation in diagnosing a progressive neurodegenerative condition until 8 years into the symptoms, because of the use of marijuana and the dependant personality. A follow-up is proposed to offer the patient a trial of a cholinesterase inhibitor, considering the finding of a reduced cortical choline-acetyl-transferase (CAT) activity in his mother's autopsy. The objective findings on neuro-imaging allow him to obtain full medical disability for a well-defined neurological condition.
Background: Dementia is becoming a major public health problem in Latin America (LA), yet epidemiological information on dementia remains scarce in this region. This study analyzes data from epidemiological studies on the prevalence of dementia in LA and compares the prevalence of dementia and its causes across countries in LA and attempts to clarify differences from those of developed regions of the world.
Methods: A database search for population studies on rates of dementia in LA was performed. Abstracts were also included in the search. Authors of the publications were invited to participate in this collaborative study by sharing missing or more recent data analysis with the group.
Results: Eight studies from six countries were included. The global prevalence of dementia in the elderly (≥65 years) was 7.1% (95% CI: 6.8–7.4), mirroring the rates of developed countries. However, prevalence in relatively young subjects (65–69 years) was higher in LA studies The rate of illiteracy among the elderly was 9.3% and the prevalence of dementia in illiterates was two times higher than in literates. Alzheimer's disease was the most common cause of dementia.
Conclusions: Compared with studies from developed countries, the global prevalence of dementia in LA proved similar, although a higher prevalence of dementia in relatively young subjects was evidenced, which may be related to the association between low educational level and lower cognitive reserve, causing earlier emergence of clinical signs of dementia in the LA elderly population.
Limb praxis can be influenced by age, gender, and education. The present study investigated the influence of these variables on gesture production by healthy elderly subjects. We evaluated 96 individuals divided into two age groups (60–74 and 75–88 years). Each group contained 48 men and 48 women and was subdivided into four groups according to education: illiterates and 1–3, 4–7, and 8 or more years of education. Individuals were requested to carry out tasks on verbal command and imitation. There were no differences between the performance of men and women, while older individuals performed worse than their younger counterparts. Regarding educational level, three major groups emerged: illiterates, individuals with 1–7 years of education, and those with 8 or more years of education. In conclusion, age and education significantly influenced the performance of individuals in limb praxis tests. (JINS, 2009, 15, 618–622.)
Background: There is little, though growing, interest in the research area of attitudes held among physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), or the current practice on AD disclosure. This study aimed to investigate the practice and attitudes of specialized physicians towards AD diagnosis disclosure in Brazil.
Methods: A questionnaire was devised to survey the current practice and attitudes regarding diagnosis disclosure of AD in Brazil and sent to specialized physicians (170 geriatricians, 300 neurologists and 500 psychiatrists) by electronic mail.
Results: From 970 potential respondents, 181 physicians who usually attend AD patients returned the questionnaire. There were no significant differences between the three specialties regarding the frequency with which they informed patients of their AD diagnosis (p = 0.17). The results revealed that only 44.8% of the physicians would regularly inform the patient of the diagnosis, although 85.6% of these use clear terminology. Despite their usual practice, 76.8% would want to know their diagnosis if they themselves were affected by AD.
Conclusions: Disclosure of AD diagnosis is not common among specialized physicians in Brazil and different factors are involved. In the clinical context, discussion on advantages of diagnosis disclosure can be useful for improving the care of AD patients and their families.
In this review, we explore the relationship between epilepsy and cognition and between epilepsy and dementia. Chronic epilepsy, particularly mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis, may be associated with impaired cognition, which can be secondary to uncontrolled seizures, to adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) or to the underlying biological abnormality. The choice of an adequate AED with an appropriate dose regimen may lead to a favorable outcome. This feature is especially relevant in elderly patients with dementia and associated epilepsy, a vulnerable population in which the diagnosis of seizures can be difficult and for whom treatment guidelines are not yet available. Based on available information and on data derived from studies with other populations, recommendations for the management of these patients are presented.
Cognitive evaluation in developing countries is a difficult
undertaking due to low levels of schooling and particularly the
illiteracy still frequent in the elderly. This study was part of the
epidemiologic evaluation of dementia in Catanduva, Brazil, and had the
objective of comparing the performance of illiterate and literate
nondemented elderly individuals in 2 tests of long-term
memory—the delayed recall of a word list from the CERAD and the
delayed recall of common objects presented as simple drawings from the
Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB). Fifty-one elderly subjects
(23 illiterates) were evaluated, and the performance of the illiterates
and literates differed in the CERAD memory test, but not in the BCSB
memory test. This test may be more suitable for the assessment of
long-term memory in populations with a high frequency of illiterates,
and therefore might prove to be a useful screening tool for the
diagnosis of dementia. (JINS, 2004, 10,
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.