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To evaluate the effectiveness of spiritual care training on medical students’ self-reported competencies.
This is a quasi-experimental (controlled and non-randomized) study including 115 Brazilian medical students. Participants were enrolled into 2 groups: fourth-year students (n = 64) who received spiritual care training and sixth-year students (n = 51) who did not receive this training – control group (i.e., usual teaching). Participants answered a self-reported Spiritual Care Competence Scale. Comparisons between groups were performed and effect sizes were reported.
Providing a spiritual care training resulted in significantly higher self-reported scores for the dimensions of “Assessment” (d = 0.99), “Improvement of care” (d = 0.69), “Counseling (d = 0.88),” “Referral” (d = 0.75), and “Total Spiritual Care” (d = 1.044) as compared to the control group. Likewise, 21 out of 27 items of the Spiritual Care Competence Scale were significantly higher for the intervention group, presenting effect sizes (d) ranging between 0.428 and 1.032.
Significance of results
Medical students receiving spiritual care training showed greater self-reported competencies as compared to those in the usual teaching. These results reinforce the importance of promoting spirituality teaching in medical schools.
Nutritional therapy should follow evidence-based practice, thus several societies regarding nutrition and critical care have developed specific Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). However, to be regarded as trustworthy, the quality of the CPG for critically ill patients and its recommendations need to be high. This systematic review aimed to appraise the methodology and recommendations of nutrition CPG for critically ill patients. We performed a systematic review (protocol number CRD42020184199) with literature search conducted on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and other four specific databases of guidelines up to October 2021. Two reviewers, independently, assessed titles and abstracts and potentially eligible full-text reports to determine eligibility and subsequently four reviewers appraised the guidelines quality using the Advancing Guideline Development, Reporting and Evaluation in Health Care instrument II (AGREE-II) and AGREE-Recommendation Excellence (AGREE-REX). Ten CPG for nutrition in critically ill patients were identified. Only Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine had a total acceptable quality and were recommended for daily practice according AGREE-II. None of the CPG recommendations had an overall quality score above 70 %, thus being classified as moderate quality according AGREE-REX. The methodological evaluation of the critically ill adult patient CPG revealed significant discrepancies and showed a need for improvement in its development and/or reporting. In addition, recommendations about nutrition care process presented a moderate quality.
The aim of the current study was to identify and describe the meal and snack patterns (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack) of public schoolchildren.
Cross-sectional study. Information on the previous day’s food intake was obtained through the Web-CAAFE (Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren), an interactive questionnaire, which divides daily food consumption into three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and three snacks (mid-morning, mid-afternoon and evening). Each meal contains thirty-one food items and the schoolchildren clicked on the food items consumed in each meal. Factor analysis was used to identify meal and snack patterns. The descriptions of the dietary patterns (DP) were based on food items with factor loads ≥ 0·30 that were considered representative of each DP.
Schoolchildren, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Children (n 1074) aged 7–13 years.
Lunch was the most consumed meal (96·0 %), followed by dinner (86·4 %), breakfast (85·3 %) and mid-afternoon snack (81·7 %). Four DP were identified for breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, dinner and evening snack, and three for mid-afternoon snack. Breakfast, lunch and dinner patterns included traditional Brazilian foods. DP consisting of fast foods and sugary beverages were also observed, mainly for the evening snack.
The results of the current study provide important information regarding the meal and snack patterns of schoolchildren to guide the development of nutrition interventions in public health.
Nutritional status (NS) monitoring is an essential step of the nutrition care process. To assess changes in NS throughout hospitalisation and its ability to predict clinical outcomes, a prospective cohort study with patients over 18 years of age was conducted. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was performed within 48 h of admission and 7 d later. For each patient, decline in NS was assessed by two different methods: changes in SGA category and severe weight loss alone (≥2 % during the first week of hospitalisation). Patients were followed up until discharge to assess length of hospital stay (LOS) and in-hospital mortality and contacted 6 months post-discharge to assess hospital readmission and death. Out of the 601 patients assessed at admission, 299 remained hospitalised for at least 7 d; of those, 16·1 % had a decline in SGA category and 22·8 % had severe weight loss alone. In multivariable analysis, decline in SGA category was associated with 2-fold (95 % CI 1·06, 4·21) increased odds of prolonged LOS and 3·6 (95 % CI 1·05, 12·26) increased odds of hospital readmission at 6 months. Severe weight loss alone was associated with 2·5-increased odds (95 % CI 1·40, 4·64) of prolonged LOS. In conclusion, deterioration of NS was more often identified by severe weight loss than by decline in SGA category. While both methods were associated with prolonged LOS, only changes in the SGA predicted hospital readmission. These findings reinforce the importance of nutritional monitoring and provide guidance for further research to prevent short-term NS deterioration from being left undetected.
This systematic review investigated the evidence for the therapeutic potential of essential oils (EOs) against Leishmania amazonensis. We searched available scientific publications from 2005 to 2019 in the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases, according to PRISMA statement. The search strategy utilized descriptors and free terms. The EOs effect of 35 species of plants identified in this systematic review study, 45.7% had half of the maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 10 < IC50 ⩽ 50 μg mL−1 and 14.3% had a 10 < IC50μg mL−1 for promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. EOs from Cymbopogon citratus species had the lowest IC50 (1.7 μg mL−1). Among the plant species analyzed for activity against intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis, 39.4% had an IC50 10 < IC50 ⩽ 50 μg mL−1, and 33.3% had an IC50 10 < IC50μg mL−1. Aloysia gratissima EO showed the lowest IC50 (0.16 μg mL−1) for intracellular amastigotes. EOs of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Copaifera martii and Carapa guianensis, administered by the oral route, were effective in reducing parasitic load and lesion volume in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. EOs of Bixa orellana and C. ambrosioides were effective when administered intraperitoneally. Most of the studies analyzed in vitro and in vivo for the risk of bias showed moderate methodological quality. These results indicate a stimulus for the development of new phytotherapy drugs for leishmaniasis treatment.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
To investigate the association between body image disorders and the lifestyle and body composition of female adolescents.
The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Silhouette Scale and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 were used to evaluate the participants’ body image. Body composition was evaluated by a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry equipment, and lifestyles were identified by latent class analysis (LCA) using the poLCA package for R.
Female adolescents aged 14–19 years old, in the city of Viçosa-MG, Brazil.
In total, 405 girls participated in the study. Almost half of the participants were dissatisfied with their current physical appearance (51·4 %), presented body perception distortions (52·9 %). 47·3 % of the adolescents were dissatisfied with their body according to the BSQ, and another 8 % severely so. Subjects with an ‘Inactive and Sedentary’ latent lifestyle were 1·71 times as likely to feel dissatisfied as those with active and sedentary or inactive and non-sedentary lifestyles (95 % CI 1·08, 2·90, P = 0·047). Body image disorders showed an association with decreased amounts of moderate and vigorous physical activity, high screen time, increased alcohol consumption and excess body fat.
Particular patterns of lifestyle and body composition seem to be associated in female adolescents with dissatisfaction with, distortion of and excessive concern about appearance. Specifically, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, alcohol consumption and high body fat percentage may be strongly linked to body image disorders.
This study investigated the diet of longnose stingray Hypanus guttatus in the tropical waters of north-eastern Brazil. Samples were obtained from monthly sampling of artisanal fisheries from August 2007 to July 2008. A total of 258 specimens were examined, 127 females and 131 males, and stomach contents analysis suggested H. guttatus to be a generalist and opportunistic predator feeding on the most available prey in the environment. There was no significant difference in the diet composition of males and females, or between seasons. However, an ontogenetic dietary shift was observed with larger individuals having an increased proportion of molluscs in the diet, whilst smaller individuals predated primarily on small crustaceans.
Leprosy is a granulomatous disease, infectious and transmissible, which affects the skin and peripheral nerves, having Mycobacterium leprae as causative agent. The manifestation of this disease causes cutaneous lesions, peripheral neuropathies and, in more extreme cases, may generate deformities and disabilities in affected individuals. Patents were identified using the descriptor ‘leprosy’ and code A61K of the international patent classification, which indicates only products that meet human needs. The analysis was made using the WIPO, ESPACENET and USPTO databases, until the month of September 2016. Through this review, we found a variety of in vitro, pre-clinical and clinical studies relating to the treatment of leprosy with different types of compounds and forms of administration. New treatment proposals should include pain reduction capabilities, prevention or limitation of the appearance of cutaneous lesions, as well as prevention of the progression of the disease to more severe stages that may lead to loss of function or potentiate the individual's immune response to the M. leprae bacillus in order to prevent bacterial spread. We concluded that any patents developed with natural products were not found in the treatment of leprosy. All the deposited products were synthetic origin, mostly tested in humans and of varied forms of administration.
Bioactive molecules isolated from plants are promising sources for the development of new therapies against leishmaniasis. We investigated the leishmanicidal activity of cariphenone A (1), isouliginosin B (2) and uliginosin B (3) isolated from Hypericum species. Promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis were incubated with compounds 1–3 at concentrations 1–100 µm for 48 h. The anti-promastigote effect of compounds was also tested in combinations. The cytotoxicity against macrophages and human erythrocytes were determined using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and hemolysis assay, respectively. The compounds 1–3 showed high leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes, IC50 values of 10.5, 17.5 and 11.3 µm, respectively. Synergistic interactions were found to the associations of compounds 1 and 2 [Σ fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) = 0.41], and 2 and 3 (ΣFIC = 0.28) on promastigotes. All Hypericum compounds induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species production in promastigotes. The compounds showed low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells, high selectivity index and killed intracellular amastigotes probably mediated by oxidative stress. These results indicate that these compounds are promising candidates for the development of drugs against leishmaniasis.
Individuals with late-life depression (LLD) may present cognitive symptoms. We sought to determine whether a brief cognitive battery (BCB) could identify cognitive and functional deficits in oldest-old individuals with LLD and a low level of education.
We evaluated 639 community-dwelling individuals aged 75+ years in Caeté (MG), Brazil. We used the MINI and GDS-15 to diagnose major depression and evaluate its severity, respectively. The cognitive evaluation comprised the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), BCB, clock-drawing test, category fluency test (animals) and Pfeffer's Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ).
Fifty-four (11.6%) of the included individuals were diagnosed with LLD; on average, these participants were aged 81.0 ± 4.8 years and had 3.9 ± 3.4 years of schooling, and 77.8% of the subjects with LLD were female. Depressed individuals scored lower than subjects without dementia/depression on the MMSE overall (p < 0.001) and on several of the MMSE subscales, namely, time (p < 0.001) and spatial orientation (p = 0.021), attention/calculation (p = 0.019), and language (p = 0.004). Individuals with LLD performed worse on the incidental and (p = 0.011) immediate memory (p = 0.046) and learning tasks (p = 0.039) of the BCB. Individuals with LLD also performed worse on the category fluency test (p = 0.006), clock-drawing test (p = 0.011) and FAQ (p < 0.001). Depression severity was negatively correlated with incidental memory (ρ = −0.412; p = 0.003) and positively correlated with FAQ score (ρ = 0.308; p = 0.035). In the multiple regression analysis, only temporal orientation and FAQ score remained independently associated with LLD.
Individuals with depression and a low level of education presented several cognitive and functional deficits. Depression severity was negatively correlated with incidental memory and functionality. Our findings serve as a description of the presence of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with LLD and suggest that these deficits may be identified based on the results of a BCB.
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is prevalent in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is often associated with poor outcomes and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits. Few studies have explored visual memory after TBI and its relationship to executive functioning. Executive functioning is crucial for remembering an object’s location, operating devices, driving, and route finding. We compared visual memory performance via the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test 6 and 12 months after DAI.
In total, 40 patients (mean age 28.7 years; 87.5% male) with moderate-to-severe DAI following a road traffic accident completed the 1-year follow-up. There was a three-phase prospective assessment. In phase 1 (1–3 months after trauma), patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In phases 2 (6 months) and 3 (12 months), they completed the BDI, STAI, and a neuropsychological battery [ROCF copy and recall, digit span forward/backward, Grooved Pegboard test, intelligence quotient (IQ) by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III)].
There was an improvement in ROCF recall over time (p=0.013), but not ROCF copy (p=0.657).There was no change in executive function (Savage scores) copy (p=0.230) or recall (p=0.155). Age, years of education, severity of the trauma, and IQ did not influence ROCF recall improvement.
There are time-dependent improvements in visual memory in patients with DAI. Neuroplasticity in the 1st months after trauma provides an opportunity for visuospatial memory learning. The present findings may be useful to formulate management plans for long-term TBI rehabilitation.
We used FLAMINGOS near-IR photometry and spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-IR photometry to study disk fractions in the 1 to 2 Myr old NGC2264 clusters. We find that stars with masses < 0.3 solar masses have lower disk fractions than stars of solar mass or higher at these early ages. We also find that most disks disappear within the first 4 Myr, which is consistent with previous studies of disk lifetimes. Our study suggests that either some very low mass stars form without disks or that their disks are less massive and/or colder than predicted from models and not detected with Spitzer/Flamingos sensitivities.
The Corot satellite observed the young stellar cluster NGC 2264 during 23 days in March 2008. This was the first time a group of young accreting stars, classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), were followed ininterruptedly with high photometric accuracy for such a long run. Before the Corot observations, AA Tau (Bouvier et al. 2003, A&A, 409, 169 and Bouvier et al. 2007, A&A, 463, 1017) was one of the few CTTS systems that had been analysed synoptically over several consecutive rotational periods. Its analysis suggested a highly dynamical star-disk interaction mediated by the stellar magnetic field, as predicted by magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of young accreting systems.
An estimated quarter of the world's population possesses an infection caused by gastrointestinal nematodes, which induce a Th2 type immune response. Concomitant infection of nematodes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which induces a predominantly Th1 type response, is very frequent in tropical and subtropical regions. This study examined immune responses of BALB/c mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and then co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The number of worms in the intestine, eggs in feces, cytokine production in lungs and intestine and the expression of CD80, CD86, CTLA-4 and CD28 cell markers on pulmonary cells were analysed. Our results indicate that co-infected mice had an increased parasite burden, which correlates with elevated IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokine production and decreased IL-4 and IL-13. Moreover, decreased expression of CD80 and increased expression of CTLA-4 were observed in co-infected mice. Our data point out that susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis infection is increased by Mycobacterium bovis co-infection, resulting in higher parasite survival.
Obesity is defined as an excess of total body fat and may be assessed by different methods. The objective of the present study was to establish the discriminatory power of anthropometric data in determining obesity.
The subjects comprised 685 individuals, aged 20–79 years, sampled from a population-based survey. The following indicators were used: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat percentage estimated with both Siri's equation (%BF Siri) and foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (%BF BIA). Sensitivity and specificity of different cut-off points for each method were determined using %BF BIA as reference.
Of 685 participants, 57.6% were aged ≥ 40 years, 69.9% were women and 72.6% self-referred themselves as non-white. To classify obesity based on sex and age among women aged < 40 years, the cut-off points were BMI of 26.0 kg m− 2, WC of 84.0 cm and %BF Siri of 34.0%; in those aged ≥ 40 years, the cut-off points were 28.0 kg m− 2, 90.0 cm and 37.4%, respectively. The cut-off points among men aged < 40 years were BMI of 26.3 kg m− 2, WC of 86.0 cm and %BF Siri of 22.5%, and in those aged ≥ 40 years, 26.3 kg m− 2, 89.0 cm and 24.5%, respectively. BMI was the method with the largest area under the curve (AUC) independent of sex and sex/age, yet no differences were observed in AUC between BMI and WC (P>0.05). Classifying according to skin colour did not change cut-off points in any indicator.
BMI and WC better discriminate obesity among women and men aged ≥ 40 years from a mixed-race population.
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in the production of fermented foods. The development of concentrated cultures of LAB, for inoculating the production vat directly (bulk starters), has eliminated many problems traditionally involved in their preparation and maintenance by the food industry. For industrial use, LAB are often preserved in a frozen or dried form, the latter preparations having lower transport and storage costs (Kets et al. 1996). Dried cultures, however, lose viability/activity during storage, especially when kept at room temperature (Champagne et al. 1991; Teixeira et al. 1995a,b; Castro et al. 1996). Attempts to improve the survival of LAB during drying have already been tried (Linders et al. 1997b; Gardiner et al. 2000). Previous results indicated a direct relationship between the presence of compatible solutes in LAB and their ability to survive drying conditions. Such solutes include amino acids, amino acid derivatives, quaternary amines, sugars and tetrahydropyrimidines (Kets & De Bont, 1994; Kets et al. 1994, 1996).
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