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In motor lotteries the probability of success is inherent in a person’s ability to make a speeded pointing movement. By contrast, in traditional economic lotteries, the probability of success is explicitly stated. Decision making with economic lotteries has revealed many violations of rational decision making models. However, with motor lotteries people’s performance is often near optimal, and is well described by statistical decision theory. We report the results of an experiment testing whether motor planning decisions exhibit the attraction effect, a well-known axiomatic violation of some rational decision models. The effect occurs when changing the composition of a choice set alters preferences between its members. We provide the first demonstration that people do exhibit the attraction effect when choosing between motor lotteries. We also found that people exhibited a similar sized attraction effect in motor and traditional economic paradigms. People’s near-optimal performance with motor lotteries is characterized by the efficiency of their decisions. In attraction effect experiments performance is instead characterized by the violation of an axiom. We discuss the extent that axiomatic and efficiency measures can provide insight in assessing the rationality of decision making.
Although the importance of prosody in processing information structure (IS) has been shown in many languages including English and Mandarin, the interacting effects of prosody with other linguistic systems, such as syntax, are relatively under-studied, especially in L2. This paper reports two question-answer appropriateness rating experiments, investigating intermediate-to-high proficiency Mandarin listeners’ integration of prosodic prominence and clefting cues in the interpretation of focus in their L1 and L2 (English). It was found that prosodic prominence was more effective than clefting as a cue to focus in L1 Mandarin. However, clefting was as effective as prominence in L2, showing L1–L2 differences in integrating multiple cues. The findings are discussed in terms of Mennen’s L2 intonation learning theory (2015) and Bates and MacWhinney’s Competition Model (1989), which provide a framework for understanding difficulties in acquiring the use of particular cues in L2. The current study contributes to our limited knowledge of a crucial part of L2 learning: how L2 learners process IS.
To assess the variables associated with incomplete and unscheduled cardiology clinic visits among referred children with a focus on equity gaps.
We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients less than 18 years of age who were referred to cardiology clinics at a single quaternary referral centre from 2017 to 2019. We collected patient demographic data including race, an index of neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation linked to a patient’s geocoded address, referral information, and cardiology clinic information. The primary outcome was an incomplete clinic visit. The secondary outcome was an unscheduled appointment. Independent associations were identified using multivariable logistic regression.
There were 10,610 new referrals; 6954 (66%) completed new cardiology clinic visits. Black race (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.22–1.63), public insurance (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.14–1.46), and a higher deprivation index (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.08–1.61) were associated with higher odds of incomplete visit compared to the respective reference groups of White race, private insurance, and a lower deprivation index. The findings for unscheduled visit were similar. A shorter time elapsed from the initial referral to when the appointment was made was associated with lower odds of incomplete visit (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.52–0.74).
Race, insurance type, neighbourhood deprivation, and time from referral date to appointment made were each associated with incomplete referrals to paediatric cardiology. Interventions directed to understand such associations and respond accordingly could help to equitably improve referral completion.
The COVID-19 crisis has thrown a spotlight onto the lifeand-death stakes attached to how we humans know about ourselves, and what we know other humans to be. One might argue that the pandemic has recreated epistemological anxieties, ontological uncertainties, and methodological divisions. This section of the book will unpack some of these issues, tracing how the images, metaphors and models used by scientists and media, as well as the choices made by policymakers, are affecting how we are thinking about and experiencing the pandemic.
In this final chapter we draw together some of the main themes emerging from the various chapters and reflect on what this tells us about being human in COVID-19 times. As outlined in the introduction, these essays have focused on three key issues during the pandemic that are fundamentally concerned with the experience, meaning and understanding of being human. Firstly, the marginalization of many groups of people and how they are de/valued in the response to the virus. Secondly, the role of new scientific knowledge and other forms of expertise in these processes of inclusion and exclusion. Thirdly, the remaking and reordering of society as a result of the pandemic and the opening up of new futures for work, the environment, culture and daily life. These themes were considered in the four sections of the collection, and the main points from each are summarized here, before a final consideration is offered on what this tells us about being human during and after the pandemic.
This collection of essays starts by exploring how COVID-19 has been known and represented in different metaphors, models, representations, and media, as the pandemic has unfolded. In analysing these processes, new insights are provided about how we understand the human. While the virus was the same molecular structure the world over (at least before the onset of variants), this section shows the myriad of different methods and resources by which the resulting disease and its impacts became known to policymakers, professionals and publics, and how these differed across the world. Three key features of this emerge. Firstly, whether through science, metaphor or imagery, the ways in which COVID-19 became known could both exacerbate existing inequalities or provide the means to counter them (Nerlich; Ballo and Pearce; Rosvik et al). In this sense, they form the ground for contestation over the meaning of COVID-19. Secondly, citizens found themselves dislocated from established sources of knowledge about the virus, which they felt to be either incomplete or inadequate (Garcia; Vicari and Yang; Rostvik et al). These uncertainties about what risks they faced, how to respond, and their responsibilities to self and others, fed into high levels of distrust and confusion.
This book centres on questions of the human that are raised by the pandemic which began in 2019 and addresses these through a series of short, accessible and thought-provoking essays that range across disciplinary boundaries and intellectual silos.
The COVID-19 crisis poses massive challenges for many citizens, businesses, policymakers and professionals around the globe. The pandemic has highlighted the deep divisions and inequalities that already existed, while at the same time opening up new fissures and fractures in society. However, as many have commented, the crisis also presents new opportunities to fundamentally rethink many aspects of social, cultural, psychological and economic life. Three key issues have emerged in this context that are fundamentally concerned with the experience, meaning and understanding of being human. Firstly, the marginalization of many groups of people, most notably members of Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) communities, disabled, young, older and displaced people and how they are de/valued in the response to the virus. It is vital that their experiences are included when thinking about life after COVID-19. This collection pays special attention to the experience of disabled people, a group often neglected in many discussions of the pandemic. Secondly, the role of new scientific knowledge and other forms of expertise in these processes of inclusion and exclusion. Little critical attention has so far been paid to the central role of science in shaping our understanding and experience of the pandemic. Thirdly, the remaking and reordering of society as a result of the pandemic and the opening up of new futures for work, the environment, culture and daily life. At the same time, the relevance and applicability of human and social sciences have been debated as we enter a period of knowledge generation that has emphasized the biomedical over the socio-political or psycho-political. These critical understandings of how we might better make the future are still missing from public discussion of the post-COVID-19 world.
The focus on ‘the human’ as a central analytical heuristic is a defining feature of the approach taken here. This owes much to ideas coming out of the broader field of what has become known as the critical posthumanities.
How is new scientific knowledge, as well as its popularization and application in various biomedical technologies, changing ideas of what it means to be human in the 21st century? These include the reworking of long-established ideas of biological determinism in understanding both health and behaviour. The pandemic is shifting these discourses and the way in which we value the life of different humans, reinforcing existing social divisions and creating new ones.
What will it mean to be human in the future? A future in which different kinds of humans can flourish together is possible, but so too is one of social and ecological breakdown. Will we live alongside robot companions and genetically edit the next generation? Can we rethink how the economy works or how we educate our children? This section considers not what will be, but how we imagine what could be, examining the future as something co-created between science, technology, politics and society in the here and now.
How are different kinds of human included or excluded by the contemporary moment? A range of policies, science advice and services during COVID-19 have had a major impact on the lives of many marginalized groups. Paying particular attention to disabled people, this section will explore the processes of marginalization, how different forms of exclusion and inequality intersect and how these processes are being resisted and transformed. By describing and analysing the lived experience of marginalized people these contributions will provide novel ways of thinking about the human that open up new opportunities for social solidarity and imagining a different future.
This chapter gives an overview of critical issues in contemporary research on the phonetics of intonation, arising from a survey of historical and recent trends in the field. We begin with a brief introduction to some of the key concepts to be used in the description of intonation in the chapter, which is based primarily on the Autosegmental Metrical framework. In the subsequent historical overview, we place this tone-based framework in its historical context, comparing it with the British tune-based tradition, before outlining more recent developments arising out of studies of typological variation of intonation, which have influenced our understanding of both the forms and the meanings of intonation. Three critical issues in the study of intonation are then reviewed: defining the phonetic variables of intonation, the relationship of intonation to other linguistic structures, and intonational variation and change. A sampling of recent research subsequently highlights work that relates to these critical issues. Key considerations for the teaching of intonation are then reviewed, before some closing comments on future directions for intonation research.
A projection by the superior colliculus to the supraoculomotor area (SOA) located dorsal to the oculomotor complex was first described in 1978. This projection’s targets have yet to be identified, although the initial study suggested that vertical gaze motoneuron dendrites might receive this input. Defining the tectal targets is complicated by the fact the SOA contains a number of different cell populations. In the present study, we used anterograde tracers to characterize collicular axonal arbors and retrograde tracers to label prospective SOA target populations in macaque monkeys. Close associations were not found with either superior or medial rectus motoneurons whose axons supply singly innervated muscle fibers. S-group motoneurons, which supply superior rectus multiply innervated muscle fibers, appeared to receive a very minor input, but C-group motoneurons, which supply medial rectus multiply innervated muscle fibers, received no input. A number of labeled boutons were observed in close association with SOA neurons projecting to the spinal cord, or the reticular formation in the pons and medulla. These descending output neurons are presumed to be peptidergic cells within the centrally projecting Edinger–Westphal population. It is possible the collicular input provides a signaling function for neurons in this population that serve roles in either stress responses, or in eating and drinking behavior. Finally, a number of close associations were observed between tectal terminals and levator palpebrae superioris motoneurons, suggesting the possibility that the superior colliculus provides a modest direct input for raising the eyelids during upward saccades.
Since most gaze shifts are to targets that lie at a different distance from the viewer than the current target, gaze changes commonly require a change in the angle between the eyes. As part of this response, lens curvature must also be adjusted with respect to target distance by the ciliary muscle. It has been suggested that projections by the cerebellar fastigial and posterior interposed nuclei to the supraoculomotor area (SOA), which lies immediately dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus and contains near response neurons, support this behavior. However, the SOA also contains motoneurons that supply multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs) and the dendrites of levator palpebrae superioris motoneurons. To better determine the targets of the fastigial nucleus in the SOA, we placed an anterograde tracer into this cerebellar nucleus in Macaca fascicularis monkeys and a retrograde tracer into their contralateral medial rectus, superior rectus, and levator palpebrae muscles. We only observed close associations between anterogradely labeled boutons and the dendrites of medial rectus MIF and levator palpebrae motoneurons. However, relatively few of these associations were present, suggesting these are not the main cerebellar targets. In contrast, labeled boutons in SOA, and in the adjacent central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), densely innervated a subpopulation of neurons. Based on their location, these cells may represent premotor near response neurons that supply medial rectus and preganglionic Edinger–Westphal motoneurons. We also identified lens accommodation-related cerebellar afferent neurons via retrograde trans-synaptic transport of the N2c rabies virus from the ciliary muscle. They were found bilaterally in the fastigial and posterior interposed nuclei, in a distribution which mirrored that of neurons retrogradely labeled from the SOA and cMRF. Our results suggest these cerebellar neurons coordinate elements of the near response during symmetric vergence and disjunctive saccades by targeting cMRF and SOA premotor neurons.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is associated with a range of cognitive deficits, including mild to moderate problems in higher order executive functions evident in neuropsychological assessments. Previous research has also suggested a lack of self-awareness in persons with AgCC.
We investigated daily executive functioning and self-awareness in 36 individuals with AgCC by analyzing self-ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), as well as ratings on the same instrument from close relatives. Discrepancies between self- and informant-ratings were compared to the normative sample and exploratory analyses examined possible moderating effects of participant and informant characteristics.
Significant deficiencies were found in the Behavioral Regulation and Metacognitive indices for both the self and informant results, with elevated frequency of metacognition scores in the borderline to clinical range. Informants also endorsed elevated frequency of borderline to clinically significant behavioral regulation scores. The proportion of AgCC participants whose self-ratings indicated less metacognitive impairment than informant-ratings was greater than in the normative sample. Self-ratings of behavioral regulation impairment decreased with age and informant-ratings of metacognition were higher in males than females.
These findings provide evidence that individuals with AgCC experience mild to moderate executive functioning problems in everyday behavior which are observed by others. Results also suggest a lack of self-understanding or insight into the severity of these problems in the individuals with AgCC, particularly with respect to their metacognitive functioning.
Abundant species are typically also viewed as ecologically dominant, and are frequently used to characterize the communities in which they live. Such characteristic assemblages may also be used as indicators of environmental conditions, such as relative stability. Fossil and modern turritelline gastropods are often the most abundant species in the marine assemblages and communities in which they occur, forming ‘turritelline-dominated assemblages’ (TDAs). We use data on modern Turritella bacillum from waters around Hong Kong as a case study to analyse fluctuations in abundance over 25 years. While turritellines were not always dominant in the area surveyed (~1650 km2), populations were notably persistent, and rebound after decline of abundances occurred within ~5 years at some sites. δ18O sclerochronology suggests that individuals were ~1–2 years old. It is also notable that T. bacillum was found to be abundant at salinities as low as 10–15 psu, despite the general characterization of turritellines as fully marine. Comparison with data on modern T. communis in the western English Channel corroborates this pattern, as localized sites of high abundance also appear transient. These results have implications for the interpretation of TDAs in the fossil record: they may signify the cumulative result of short-lived, spatially restricted populations, possibly resulting from essentially stochastic larval settlement. This suggests that the palaeoenvironmental setting of fossil TDAs does not always control their occurrence on short temporal scales.