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This chapter provides an overview of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. The focus on iron in Parkinson's disease (PD) imaging has remained an important topic and researchers have often utilized T2*, or its reciprocal R2*, in nigral imaging protocols. Some iron-sensitive methods have been recently developed. These include adiabatic T2ρ, magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). The authors have developed a novel rotating frame relaxation experiment called relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF). There has been greater refinement with the utilization of methods that do not employ a-priori regions of interest (ROIs). One such method is voxel-based morphometry (VBM), in which there is standardization of data and then voxel-by-voxel comparison between group data to determine if there are differences in signal intensity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides structural data based on the directionally restrained diffusion of water within fiber tracts.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Movement Disorders is the first book to focus in detail on MRI in a range of movement disorders. Since MRI was first employed in imaging Parkinson's disease, the number of imaging techniques and their application in diagnosis and management has extended widely. The book shows various imaging strategies ranging from functional, structural and chemical methods as they relate to both motor and non-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease and other conditions such as Huntington's disease and dystonia. Chapters on MRI in surgery and using MRI as a potential outcome measure in clinical trials show the clinical relevance of methods. Novel methods including DTI, tractography and resting case studies are described in detail. The book also summarises the relevance of fMRI to various aspects of movement disorders. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Movement Disorders is essential reading for neurologists, radiologists and movement disorder specialists.
A large number of neurological conditions result in abnormal movements of the body; these are often characterized by changes in coordination and altered speed of voluntary movement. Many obscure diseases, conditions and environmental insults can cause movement disorders but these are often overlooked. This volume expands and differentiates the many varied clinical presentations of movement disorders. Written by an international team of authors, including some of the most prominent clinicians in the field, disorders are defined and expanded in a clinically useful manner. Pathophysiological theories, genetic discoveries, new classifications, differential diagnoses and therapies are discussed extensively. Uncommon Causes of Movement Disorders provides a broad and comprehensive review of the field, concentrating on conditions infrequently seen but essential for practitioners to recognize in order to implement appropriate management. This is a key text for movement disorders specialists and general neurologists at all stages of their career.