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Recent scholarship has sought to read Smith in TMS as an ethical critic of market inequality, one motivated by egalitarian commitments. This chapter pushes back against this reading, arguing that the position Smith adopts in TMS is most accurately labelled sufficientarian, not egalitarian. However, Smith’s sufficientarian considerations are deliberately focused on what is most apt for securing individual happiness. He says little of direct or decisive bearing on the plausibility of egalitarianism as a political commitment. Yet because ethical questions are not, in this area at least, isomorphic with political ones, we ought not to assume the latter can straightforwardly be read off the former. This ought to temper both our reading of Smith’s argument, and what we can appropriately extract from his text for present normative debate.
2023 marks the 300th anniversary of the birth of Adam Smith. Long known as the 'father of economics', Smith also produced moral and political writings which have increasingly come to be recognised as major contributions to the Scottish, and indeed wider European, Enlightenment. In this collection of original essays, leading Smith scholars offer fresh perspectives on how to think about Smith's ideas, the nature and importance of his works, and their impact upon subsequent thinkers and ultimately the world we live in. Bringing together both leading experts and some of the most exciting new voices in the field, this collection seeks both to celebrate and deepen our appreciation of what Adam Smith has to teach us.
Seabirds are highly threatened, including by fisheries bycatch. Accurate understanding of offshore distribution of seabirds is crucial to address this threat. Tracking technologies revolutionised insights into seabird distributions but tracking data may contain a variety of biases. We tracked two threatened seabirds (Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche salvini n = 60 and Black Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni n = 46) from their breeding colonies in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to their non-breeding grounds in South America, including Peru, while simultaneously completing seven surveys in Peruvian waters. We then used species distribution models to predict occurrence and distribution using either data source alone, and both data sources combined. Results showed seasonal differences between estimates of occurrence and distribution when using data sources independently. Combining data resulted in more balanced insights into occurrence and distributions, and reduced uncertainty. Most notably, both species were predicted to occur in Peruvian waters during all four annual quarters: the northern Humboldt upwelling system for Salvin’s Albatross and northern continental shelf waters for Black Petrels. Our results highlighted that relying on a single data source may introduce biases into distribution estimates. Our tracking data might have contained ontological and/or colony-related biases (e.g. only breeding adults from one colony were tracked), while our survey data might have contained spatiotemporal biases (e.g. surveys were limited to waters <200 nm from the coast). We recommend combining data sources wherever possible to refine predictions of species distributions, which ultimately will improve fisheries bycatch management through better spatiotemporal understanding of risks.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Resistance to colistin, a last resort antibiotic, has emerged in India. We investigated colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae(ColR-KP) in a hospital in India to describe infections, characterize resistance of isolates, compare concordance of detection methods, and identify transmission events.
Retrospective observational study.
Case-patients were defined as individuals from whom ColR-KP was isolated from a clinical specimen between January 2016 and October 2017. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were confirmed by broth microdilution (BMD). Isolates underwent colistin susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and whole-genome sequencing. Medical records were reviewed.
Of 846 K. pneumoniae isolates, 34 (4%) were colistin resistant. In total, 22 case-patients were identified. Most (90%) were male; their median age was 33 years. Half were transferred from another hospital; 45% died. Case-patients were admitted for a median of 14 days before detection of ColR-KP. Also, 7 case-patients (32%) received colistin before detection of ColR-KP. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems and susceptible to tigecycline. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were also resistant by BMD; 2 ColR-KP isolates were resistant by disk diffusion. Moreover, 8 multilocus sequence types were identified. Isolates were negative for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. Based on sequencing analysis, in-hospital transmission may have occurred with 8 case-patients (38%).
Multiple infections caused by highly resistant, mcr-negative ColR-KP with substantial mortality were identified. Disk diffusion correlated poorly with Vitek 2 and BMD for detection of ColR-KP. Sequencing indicated multiple importation and in-hospital transmission events. Enhanced detection for ColR-KP may be warranted in India.
Over the past two decades, Philip Pettit has consistently argued for an understanding of “republican” liberty in terms of nondomination. Yet in his major published studies, he has almost nothing to say about markets, nor about the economy more generally. I contend that this is a seriously problematic omission, insofar as markets represent a major problem for republican views of freedom. In short: if freedom requires the absence of the mere possibility of arbitrary interference (as Pettit maintains), then the widespread existence of markets indicates that on a republican view the vast majority of people in the world today exist in the dominated position of slaves. As a result, Pettit cannot adopt the “complacency” towards market transactions that he officially avows. But in turn, we ought to be highly skpetical that the republican account of freedom is a viable one.
A retrospective case–case control study was conducted, including 60 cases with daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant enterococci (DNS-VRE) matched to cases with daptomycin-susceptible VRE and to uninfected controls (1:1:3 ratio). Immunosuppression, presence of comorbid conditions, and prior exposure to antimicrobials were independent predictors of DNS-VRE, although prior daptomycin exposure occurred rarely. In summary, a case–case control study identified independent risk factors for the isolation of DNS-VRE: immunosuppression, multiple comorbid conditions, and prior exposures to cephalosporines and metronidazole.
During the year 2012 the International Liquid Mirror Telescope (a collaboration between astronomical institutions in Belgium, Canada, India and Poland) wil see first light. The instrument will provide substantial, in-depth sky coverage and make an unprecedented number of nightly observations.
We have observed 11 radio quiet QSOs (RQQSOs) to see if they exhibit intranight variability in the optical. The detection of such microvariability would support models in which fluctuations on accretion disks are dominant, while if it is never present, models based on relativistic jets would be favored. Although several of these RQQSOs show hints of microvariability, we cannot claim to have discovered this phenomenon in this class of objects. Several of the comparison stars have clearly shown rapid variability.
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