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Some of the roots of pro-social behavior, of which caring and compassion are forms, are from the evolution of parental investment and caring (Brown & Brown, 2015; Fogel, Melson, & Mistry, 1986; Gilbert, 1989/2016, 2009; Mayseless, 2016; Preston, 2013; Seppälä, Simon-Thomas, Brown, Worline, Cameron, & Doty. (2017)). There are a number of different dictionary definitions of caring. A typical one is “the provision of what is needed for the well-being or protection of a person or thing” (www.dictionary.com/browse/caring). Fogel, Melson, and Mistry (1986) suggested that the core elements of care-nurturance are “The provision of guidance, protection and care for the purpose of fostering developmental change congruent with the expected potential for change of the object of nurturance” (p. 55).
Objectives: Research has shown that analyzing intrusion errors generated on verbal learning and memory measures is helpful for distinguishing between the memory disorders associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that certain clinical populations may be prone to exhibit different types of intrusion errors. Methods: We examined the prevalence of two new California Verbal Learning Test-3 (CVLT-3) intrusion subtypes – across-trial novel intrusions and across/within trial repeated intrusions – in individuals with AD or HD. We hypothesized that the encoding/storage impairment associated with medial-temporal involvement in AD would result in a greater number of novel intrusions on the delayed recall trials of the CVLT-3, whereas the executive dysfunction associated with subcortical-frontal involvement in HD would result in a greater number of repeated intrusions across trials. Results: The AD group generated significantly more across-trial novel intrusions than across/within trial repeated intrusions on the delayed cued-recall trials, whereas the HD group showed the opposite pattern on the delayed free-recall trials. Conclusions: These new intrusion subtypes, combined with traditional memory analyses (e.g., recall versus recognition performance), promise to enhance our ability to distinguish between the memory disorders associated with primarily medial-temporal versus subcortical-frontal involvement.
The mental health of university students, especially medical students, is of growing concern in the UK.
To estimate the prevalence of mental disorder in health sciences students and investigate help-seeking behaviour.
An online survey from one English university (n = 1139; 53% response rate) collected data on depression (using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment), alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), self-harm and well-being, as well as help seeking.
A quarter of the students reported symptoms of moderate/severe depression and 27% reported symptoms of moderate/severe anxiety. Only 21% of students with symptoms of severe depression had sought professional help; the main reason for not seeking help was fear of documentation on academic records.
The study highlights the extent of mental health problems faced by health science students. Barriers to help seeking due to concerns about fitness-to-practise procedures urgently need to be addressed to ensure that this population of students can access help in a timely fashion.
Objectives: The third edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-3) includes a new index termed List A versus Novel/Unrelated recognition discriminability (RD) on the Yes/No Recognition trial. Whereas the Total RD index incorporates false positive (FP) errors associated with all distractors (including List B and semantically related items), the new List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index incorporates only FP errors associated with novel, semantically unrelated distractors. Thus, in minimizing levels of source and semantic interference, the List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index may yield purer assessments of yes/no recognition memory independent of vulnerability to source memory difficulties or semantic confusion, both of which are often seen in individuals with primarily frontal-system dysfunction (e.g., early Huntington’s disease [HD]). Methods: We compared the performance of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and HD in mild and moderate stages of dementia on CVLT-3 indices of Total RD and List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD. Results: Although AD and HD subgroups exhibited deficits on both RD indices relative to healthy comparison groups, those with HD generally outperformed those with AD, and group differences were more robust on List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD than on Total RD. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the clinical utility of the new CVLT-3 List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index, which (a) maximally assesses yes/no recognition memory independent of source and semantic interference; and (b) provides a greater differentiation between individuals whose memory disorder is primarily at the encoding/storage level (e.g., as in AD) versus at the retrieval level (e.g., as in early HD). (JINS, 2018, 24, 833–841)
Latinos constitute a hard-to-reach minority population in Iowa. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to supplement random digit dialing to recruit Latinos for a community physical activity intervention. RDS yielded a 59% increase in Latino participation in just 2 months, with few demographic differences between RDS and random digit dialing groups. RDS may increase recruitment of underrepresented populations and strengthen community engagement; however, it is not a quick fix for underperforming recruitment methods.
So you see that I was unable to get any information whatsoever about the Phoenix in the course of my wanderings through Europe; I therefore determined to set sail for America, in the hope that I might be more fortunate among the savages of that Continent.
The Hurricane and its Notes
By word-count alone the notes to The Hurricane take up nearly three-quarters of the total contents of the book; the notes are not subordinate but an essential part of a work that combines verse and prose in the hybrid form known as prosimetric. Well-known examples of this genre in European literature include Dante's Vita Nuova and Il Convivio, in which Dante combined his own poems with extended philosophical commentary and narrative to create a wider frame within which the poems were set. Thomas Blount's Glossographia of 1656 is cited by OED as the first English work to use the term ‘prosimetricall’ as a name for this mixed form.
The practice of adding notes to poems burgeoned during the Romantic era. By 1825 Xavier de Maistre felt that this had gone too far and joked about having made a good preparation toward writing a poem by accumulating ‘five hundred pages of notes, which comprise, as everyone knows, all the merit, and fill out all the bulk, of most modern poems’. Robert Southey delighted in adding notes to his epics (the example of Thalaba has already been noted); these are usually quotations from his exotic source material that it seems he could not resist sharing with the reader. Shelley's Queen Mab: a Philosophical Poem, with Notes (1813) is closer to Gilbert's ‘theosophical’ Hurricane in style, propounding its author's convictions in the unrestrained way that private publication makes possible. Shelley's notes – while not reaching Gilbertian proportions – take up as much space as his nine-canto poem, and are intended to support its philosophical message.
If Gilbert was following a precedent in his use of this form in the mid-1790s, the influence is likely to be Erasmus Darwin's The Economy of Vegetation, part one of The Botanic Garden (1791). Darwin's extensive notes sometimes amounted to wholly independent essays, and Gilbert's references to Darwin's book in his own Hurricane notes show how closely he had read it (HN §17).
As a nucleus, so many men of genius were there congregated, as to justify the designation, ‘The Augustan Age of Bristol’.
Joseph Cottle, CER, pp. ix–x.
Gilbert was back in Bristol by May 1795. One possible link with the city was his Aunt Grace, who had moved there in 1792. She was married to one Captain Thomas Webb, who had lost an eye and nearly died in the 1759 battle for Quebec. With his eye-patch and military bearing he cut a striking figure as a lay Methodist, preaching in full uniform ‘with his drawn sword laid across the pulpit cushion’. Although approaching seventy and plagued by gout, he initiated fundraising towards the building of a Methodist chapel in the new residential area of Kingsdown on the slopes above the city, where he and Grace lived (Bates, pp. 32–3). Grace's surviving letters make no mention of William, whose revolutionary zeal and leanings towards occultism might be viewed as putting him at odds with these pillars of local Methodist society. The Methodist Arminian Magazine had, after all, printed in 1793 a disapproving account of what it called John Henderson's ‘reprehensible […] knowledge of the occult sciences of Magic and Astrology!’
However, such divisions were by no means clear cut: Captain Webb, according to a dinner guest, would describe the angels he had seen and his converse with spirits. The ex-Methodist bookseller James Lackington commented in 1791, the year of John Wesley's death, that many Methodists were defecting to the recently formed Swedenborgian church, which was then ‘gaining ground very fast’. Lackington's dismissal of this migration as ‘the fondness of mankind for novelty, and the marvellous’ (p. 291), reflects his own disenchantment: the appeal of Methodism had been, in its early days, the promise of religious experience, a ‘claim to extraordinary revelations of powers from the Holy Spirit’ that the established church had condemned as ‘enthusiasm’. As Methodism settled into respectability, such experiences were no longer courted or encouraged, and some members felt that to be a loss. Gilbert, although not formally a member of the Swedenborgian church, seems to have had a foot in both camps: while in Bristol, he acted as an intermediary for a local Methodist who was attracted to Swedenborg's writings, and wanted to know what other Methodists in Shropshire, with whom Gilbert had family connections, thought of them.
William Gilbert, poet, theosophist and astrologer, published The Hurricane: A Theosophical and Western Eclogue in Bristol in 1796, while he was on intimate terms with key members of Bristol literary culture: Coleridge published an extract from The Hurricane in his radical periodical The Watchman; Robert Southey wrote of the poem’s ‘passages of exquisite Beauty’; and William Wordsworth praised and quoted a long passage from Gilbert’s poem in The Excursion. The Hurricane is a copiously annotated 450 line blank verse visionary poem set on the island of Antigua where, in 1763, Gilbert was born into a slave-owning Methodist family. The poem can be grouped with other apocalyptic poems of the 1790s—Blake’s Continental Prophecies, Coleridge's Religious Musings, Southey's Joan of Arc —all of which gave a spiritual interpretation to the dramatic political upheavals of their time. William Gilbert and Esoteric Romanticism presents the untold story of Gilbert’s progress from the radical occultist circles of 1790s London to his engagement with the first generation Romantics in Bristol. At the heart of the book is the first modern edition of The Hurricane, fully annotated to reveal the esoteric metaphysics at its core, followed by close interpretative analysis of this strange elusive poem.
Item—A strange Poem written by an Astrologer here.
S. T. Coleridge
A Strange Poem
A ‘strange poem’ indeed: a poem set in the Caribbean, which starts with the unseen effects of the European invasion of America that followed Columbus's voyage of discovery. The natives slaughtered by these European invaders have gathered as spirits beneath the sea, patiently plotting their revenge. Gradually, over 300 years, they have taken over the bodies of successive generations of European invaders until they rebel against Europe and, as Americans, establish the first state to have Liberty and the Rights of Man enshrined in its constitution. This freedom is now spreading back to Europe, and the old despotic order is being swept away. Like John on Patmos, our poet–seer on the Caribbean island of Antigua is given a vision of this impending change and rebirth, which is magically aligned to the action of a hurricane that turns toward Europe to inspire revolution, first in France and next (he hopes) in England.
William Gilbert published this poem, The Hurricane: a Theosophical and Western Eclogue, in Bristol in 1796. To be in Bristol in the second half of the 1790s was to be present at the beginning of English Romantic poetry. Introduced by their publisher Joseph Cottle, Gilbert was soon on intimate terms with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, and William Wordsworth, who were all impressed enough by his poem to praise it, quote from it, adopt imagery from it, and promote it on his behalf.
Wordsworth, quoting a long extract from Gilbert's extensive notes to The Hurricane, praised it as ‘one of the finest passages of modern English Prose’. Southey called Gilbert ‘a man of brilliant genius’, and admired The Hurricane's ‘passages of exquisite beauty’. Coleridge published a short fragment of selected lines from The Hurricane in his periodical The Watchman, six months before the whole poem appeared in print. When it was published, Coleridge – evidently charged with distributing copies by mail – gave a striking profile of its author in a covering letter:
Item—A strange Poem written by an Astrologer here, who was a man of fine Genius, which, at intervals, he still discovers.—But, ah me! Madness smote with her hand, and stamped with her feet and swore that he should be her's—& her's he is.
All that is obscure here, I am ready at any hour, to explain to the meek.’
The Problem with Allegory
Chapter 6 looked at Gilbert's structure of Hermetic geography, the underlying metaphysical scheme of The Hurricane. This interaction of the continents is also represented in what Jonathan Wordsworth has described as its ‘complicated, only-partly-construable […] allegoric narrative’. The mystery of this narrative particularly concerns Elmira, the somewhat ambiguous girl (or young woman), described as a ‘form Divine’ (II: 49–50). Elmira is at first sight an ideal love object appearing in answer to the narrator's prayers (I: 138–41), but the narrator's descriptions of her exceed the normal hyperboles of romantic love, and the suspicion that Elmira is more spirit or angel than human is confirmed when she undergoes a transformation at the end of the poem, and her ascendancy seems to match the development of America the fourth continent as it becomes a triumphant revolutionary force. This is confirmed by the way the American element of air is prominent at the end of the poem, when Elmira emerges reborn from the shelter:
All the Isle, the conquered ocean,
Lay before her …
Her God is in her heart in Love and Bliss;
And through the Isle and air she lives.
(II: 188–9, 192–3)
In this passage, the ocean (water: Europe), which drowned Elmira's mother, is defeated by air (the hurricane: America) and becomes the ‘conquered ocean’. Elmira, identified with air (‘through the Isle and air she lives’), is the renewed spirit of America, who has now gained a mysterious god-like supremacy.
The narrative of the poem can be briefly summarised. It begins by describing the European invasion of the Americas, and how the spirits of the natives, slaughtered and subjugated by the invaders, have gathered beneath the sea, building up power that will rebalance the injustice they have suffered. Now arrived at their full strength, they rise up into the air as elemental forces that are to form a hurricane, the signs of whose coming are clear to anyone who knows what to look for.
Bless us! I was most intimate with poor Gilbert, who was as mad as a March hare, & who has written letters to me referring to & prolixly repeating conversations of mine which not only never had, but never could have, taken place!
S. T. Coleridge, Marginalia
The most immediate signs of Coleridge's intimacy with ‘poor Gilbert’ are two pieces of Gilbert's writing that appeared in The Watchman, the periodical ‘miscellany’ that Coleridge published every eighth day (thus avoiding a tax on weekly newspapers) between March and May 1796. The Watchman was intended as part of the concerted opposition to the Two Bills that threatened to ban political protest as ‘Treasonable Practices’ or ‘Seditious Meetings’; but these ‘gagging’ Bills became law before The Watchman appeared in print. Hence Coleridge's first essay shied away from direct opposition and talked of ‘the diffusion of that general knowledge which should be the basis or substratum of politics’ (p. 14), an approach that shows remarkable consistency with his later writings.
Gilbert's essay ‘The Commercial Academic: No. I’ by ‘Mr. G—rt’ appeared in The Watchman, V: 2 April 1796. It was first attributed to Gilbert by Lewis Patton (Watchman, pp. 168–72). The strutting barrister rhetoric has enough in common with Gilbert's prose style to give credibility to Patton's attribution. Its topic, macroeconomics, may seem a surprising departure from the macrocosmal astrology Gilbert had been propounding in London, but it certainly proves Cottle's point about Gilbert delighting in argument. Coleridge's praise is qualified (Gilbert's ‘reasonings are perhaps not unimpregnably solid’) but he has a periodical to fill, is hungry for contributions, and a regular series has been promised: ‘The Editor returns his grateful acknowledgements to Mr. G—rt for the following Essay, and will anxiously expect the remaining Numbers’ (p. 168). No further numbers appeared.
Although this is nowhere stated, the contents of Gilbert's essay suggest strongly that he was prompted to write it in response to Coleridge's ‘On the Slave Trade’, which had appeared in the previous issue of The Watchman. Coleridge's essay (based on his ‘Lecture on the Slave-Trade’ given at the Assembly Coffee House on 16 June 1795) argued that human vices (and hence the slave trade) arise from ‘imaginary Wants. […]