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This commentary expands on some key issues in the assessment, developmental psychopathology, and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The authors review evidence suggesting that BPD severity can be assessed along a continuum based on number of DSM criteria, which form a unitary dimension. However, to advance the clinical impact of alternative trait-based dimensional models of BPD, there is a need for measures and clinically validated thresholds that can inform early detection, diagnosis, and treatment planning along the full spectrum of BPD severity and at various stages of its development. They also highlight the importance of longitudinal studies examining dynamic transactional processes contributing to the onset and developmental course of BPD that have implications for individual and family-based interventions and prevention efforts. Regarding treatment, the authors emphasize the importance of addressing functional impairments in major social roles and improving interpersonal relatedness with close attachment figures as valuable means for improving emotion regulation and enhancing long-term recovery and rehabilitation from BPD. Finally, they encourage the use of assessment and analytic strategies capable of modeling idiographic dynamic processes, which may lead to the development of person-specific case conceptualization and treatment approaches.
Studies suggest that symptoms of traumatic grief constitute a distinct syndrome worthy of diagnosis.
A consensus conference aimed to develop and test a criteria set for traumatic grief.
The expert panel proposed consensus criteria for traumatic grief. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses tested the performance of the proposed criteria on 306 widowed respondents at seven months post-loss.
ROC analyses indicated that three of four separation distress symptoms (e.g. yearning, searching, loneliness) had to be endorsed as at least ‘sometimes true’ and four of the final eight traumatic distress symptoms (e.g. numbness, disbelief, distrust, anger, sense of futility about the future) had to be endorsed as at least ‘mostly true’ to yield a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.93 for a diagnosis of traumatic grief.
Preliminary analyses suggest the consensus criteria for traumatic grief have satisfactory operating characteristics, and point to directions for further refinement of the criteria set.
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