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Recent initiatives have focused on integrating transdiagnostic biobehavioral processes or dispositions with dimensional models of psychopathology. Toward this goal, biobehavioral traits of affiliative capacity (AFF) and inhibitory control (INH) hold particular promise as they demonstrate transdiagnostic stability and predictive validity across developmental stages and differing measurement modalities. The current study employed data from different modes of measurement in a sample of 1830 children aged 5–10 years to test for associations of AFF and INH, individually and interactively, with broad dimensions of psychopathology. Low AFF, assessed via parent-report, evidenced predictive relations with distress- and externalizing-related problems. INH as assessed by cognitive-task performance did not relate itself to either psychopathology dimension, but it moderated the effects observed for low AFF, such that high INH protected against distress symptoms in low-AFF participants, whereas low INH amplified distress and externalizing symptoms in low-AFF participants. Results are discussed in the context of the interface of general trait transdiagnostic risk factors with quantitatively derived dimensional models of psychopathology.
The late Holocene Bonneville landslide, a 15.5 km2 rockslide-debris avalanche, descended 1000 m from the north side of the Columbia River Gorge and dammed the Columbia River where it bisects the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington, USA. The landslide, inundation, and overtopping created persistent geomorphic, ecologic, and cultural consequences to the river corridor, reported by Indigenous narratives and explorer accounts, as well as scientists and engineers. From new dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of three trees killed by the landslide, one entrained and buried by the landslide and two killed by rising water in the impounded Columbia River upstream of the blockage, we find (1) the two drowned trees and the buried tree died the same year, and (2) the age of tree death, and hence the landslide (determined by combined results of nine radiocarbon analyses of samples from the three trees), falls within AD 1421–1455 (3σ confidence interval). This result provides temporal context for the tremendous physical, ecological, and cultural effects of the landslide, as well as possible triggering mechanisms. The age precludes the last Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake of AD 1700 as a landslide trigger, but not earlier subduction zone or local crustal earthquakes.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) shotgun metagenomics (metagenomics) attempts to sequence the entire genetic content straight from the sample. Diagnostic advantages lie in the ability to detect unsuspected, uncultivatable, or very slow-growing organisms.
To evaluate the clinical and economic effects of using WGS and metagenomics for outbreak management in a large metropolitan hospital.
Intensive care unit and burn unit of large metropolitan hospital.
Simulated intensive care unit and burn unit patients.
We built a complex simulation model to estimate pathogen transmission, associated hospital costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) during a 32-month outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). Model parameters were determined using microbiology surveillance data, genome sequencing results, hospital admission databases, and local clinical knowledge. The model was calibrated to the actual pathogen spread within the intensive care unit and burn unit (scenario 1) and compared with early use of WGS (scenario 2) and early use of WGS and metagenomics (scenario 3) to determine their respective cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address model uncertainty.
On average compared with scenario 1, scenario 2 resulted in 14 fewer patients with CRAB, 59 additional QALYs, and $75,099 cost savings. Scenario 3, compared with scenario 1, resulted in 18 fewer patients with CRAB, 74 additional QALYs, and $93,822 in hospital cost savings. The likelihoods that scenario 2 and scenario 3 were cost-effective were 57% and 60%, respectively.
The use of WGS and metagenomics in infection control processes were predicted to produce favorable economic and clinical outcomes.
White Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) is indigenous to West Africa, a region that harbours the crop's tremendous landrace diversity. The knowledge and understanding of local cultivars’ genetic diversity are essential for properly managing genetic resources, conservation, sustainable use and their improvement through breeding. This study aimed to dissect phenotypic and molecular diversity of white yam cultivars from Benin using agro-morphological and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Eighty-eight Beninese white Guinea yam cultivars collected through a countrywide ethnobotanical survey were phenotyped with 53 traits and genotyped with 9725 DArT-SNP. Multivariate analysis using phenotypic traits revealed 30 traits as most discriminative and explained up to 80.78% of cultivars’ phenotypic variation. Assessment of diversity indices such as Shannon–Wiener (H′), inverse Shannon (H.B.), Simpson's (λ) index and Pilou evenness (J) based molecular and phenotypic data depicted a moderate genetic diversity in Beninese white Guinea yam cultivars. Genetic differentiation of cultivars among country production zones was low due to the high exchange of planting materials among farmers of different regions. However, there was high genetic diversity within regions. Hierarchical clusters (HCs) on phenotypic data revealed the presence of two groups while HCs based on the SNP markers and the combined analysis identified three genetic groups. Our result provided valuable insights into the Beninese white Guinea yam diversity for its proper conservation and improvement through breeding.
Johannesburg was still a brash mining town, better known for the production of wealth than knowledge, and the University of the Witwatersrand a mere ten years old when, in 1932, these ten lectures were delivered under the auspices of the University Philosophical Society. They portrayed the ideas of the university's leading academics of the day, and the programme of lectures reveals a studied effort to introduce an element of bipartisan political representation between English and Afrikaner in South Africa by including Wits' first principal, Jan Hofmeyr, and politician, D.F. Malan, as discussion chairs. Yet, no black intellectuals were represented and, indeed, the politics of racial segregation bursts through the text only in a few of the contributions. For the most part, race is alluded to only in passing. As Saul Dubow explains in his new introduction to this re-issue of the lectures, Our Changing World-View was an occasion for Wits' leading faculty members to position the young university as a mature institution with a leadership role in public affairs. Above all, it was a means to project the university as a research as well as a teaching institution, led by a vigorous and ambitious cohort of liberal-minded intellectuals. That all were male and white will be immediately apparent to readers of this reissued volume. Ranging from economics, psychology, a spurious rebuttal of evolution to a substantial revisionist history and the perils of the 'machine age', this book is a sombre reflection of intellectual history and the academy's role in promulgating political and social divisions in South Africa.
The present study reports the validity of multiple assessment methods for tracking changes in body composition over time and quantifies the influence of unstandardised pre-assessment procedures. Resistance-trained males underwent 6 weeks of structured resistance training alongside a hyperenergetic diet, with four total body composition evaluations. Pre-intervention, body composition was estimated in standardised (i.e. overnight fasted and rested) and unstandardised (i.e. no control over pre-assessment activities) conditions within a single day. The same assessments were repeated post-intervention, and body composition changes were estimated from all possible combinations of pre-intervention and post-intervention data. Assessment methods included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography, three-dimensional optical imaging, single- and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, bioimpedance spectroscopy and multi-component models. Data were analysed using equivalence testing, Bland–Altman analysis, Friedman tests and validity metrics. Most methods demonstrated meaningful errors when unstandardised conditions were present pre- and/or post-intervention, resulting in blunted or exaggerated changes relative to true body composition changes. However, some methods – particularly DXA and select digital anthropometry techniques – were more robust to a lack of standardisation. In standardised conditions, methods exhibiting the highest overall agreement with the four-component model were other multi-component models, select bioimpedance technologies, DXA and select digital anthropometry techniques. Although specific methods varied, the present study broadly demonstrates the importance of controlling and documenting standardisation procedures prior to body composition assessments across distinct assessment technologies, particularly for longitudinal investigations. Additionally, there are meaningful differences in the ability of common methods to track longitudinal body composition changes.
The thickness of a supraglacial layer is critical to the magnitude and time frame of glacier melt. Field-based, short pulse, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has successfully measured debris thickness during a glacier's melt season, when there is a strong return from the ice–debris interface, but profiling with GPR in the absence of a highly reflective ice interface has not been explored. We investigated the performance of 960 MHz signals over 2 km of transects on Changri Nup Glacier, Nepal, during the post-monsoon. We also performed laboratory experiments to interpret the field data and investigate electromagnetic wave propagation into dry rocky debris. Laboratory tests confirmed wave penetration into the glacier ice and suggest that the ice–debris interface return was missing in field data because of a weak dielectric contrast between solid ice and porous dry debris. We developed a new method to estimate debris thicknesses by applying a statistical approach to volumetric backscatter, and our backscatter-based calculated thickness retrievals gave reasonable agreement with debris depths measured manually in the field (10–40 cm). We conclude that, when melt season profiling is not an option, a remote system near 1 GHz could allow dry debris thickness to be estimated based on volumetric backscatter.
To assess the feasibility and utility of introducing the following changes on to in-patient units:
Structural and cultural adaptation to create a sleep friendly ward environment
A “Protected Sleep Time” between midnight and 6am
Routine screening for sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnoea and restless leg syndrome
Insomnia and other sleep disturbances are cause, correlate and consequence of psychiatric disorders. Routine hourly night time observations, ward noise, bright lights at night time, sleep disorders, insufficient exercise, insufficient day light exposure, too much caffeine and inappropriate psychotropic use are all causes of disturbed sleep (Horne 2018).
Seven wards participated in a pilot (SleepWell). These consisted of one male and two female Acute Wards (General Adult), a High Dependency Unit, a Neurorehabilitation ward, an in-patient dementia service and one rehabilitation ward. These wards were supported via an existing trust management structure and the pilot was specifically supported by two trust managers (RW and RB) and by a clinical director (PK). The expectation was that each ward would identify a sleep champion from existing staff to facilitate the changes. A “product” was developed which identified core sleep management features but, in addition, wards were not confined to these. The existing policy that all inpatients should be checked each hour over night was suspended for the pilot wards and the patients had protected sleep time (PST) if the MDT agreed that it was clinically appropriate.
Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to identify facilitators of change, impact on sleep and, outcome.
Protected sleep was viewed positively by all staff and approximately 50% of patients on the pilot wards were able to have PST at some point in their admission. Routine sleep disorder assessments were harder to implement and 33% of patients were screened. There were no deaths or significant events on patients due to PST. Hypnotic use on the pilot wards reduced. It is anticipated that PST where it is safe will be rolled out across all adult and old age wards in the trust.
With support, it has been feasible to change many aspects of sleep management across a breadth of inpatient units in a large NHS trust.
Numerical homogenization is a methodology for the computational solution of multiscale partial differential equations. It aims at reducing complex large-scale problems to simplified numerical models valid on some target scale of interest, thereby accounting for the impact of features on smaller scales that are otherwise not resolved. While constructive approaches in the mathematical theory of homogenization are restricted to problems with a clear scale separation, modern numerical homogenization methods can accurately handle problems with a continuum of scales. This paper reviews such approaches embedded in a historical context and provides a unified variational framework for their design and numerical analysis. Apart from prototypical elliptic model problems, the class of partial differential equations covered here includes wave scattering in heterogeneous media and serves as a template for more general multi-physics problems.
Local magnification artifacts in atom probe tomography (APT) caused by multiphase materials with heterogeneous evaporation behavior are a well-known problem. In particular, the analysis of the exact size, shape, and composition of small precipitates is, therefore, not trivial. We performed numerical simulations of APT measurements to predict the reconstructed morphology of precipitates with contrasting evaporation thresholds. Based on a statistical approach that avoids coarse graining, the simulated data are evaluated to develop a model for the calculation of the original size of the precipitates. The model is tested on experimental APT data of precipitates with a higher and lower evaporation field in a ferritic alloy. Accurate sizes, proven by a complementary investigation by transmission electron microscopy, are obtained. We show further, how the size information can be used to obtain compositional information of the smallest precipitates and present a new methodology to determine a correct in-depth scaling of the APT reconstruction in case no complementary geometric information about the specimen exists or if no lattice planes are visible in the reconstruction.
The triarchic model was advanced as an integrative, trait-based framework for investigating psychopathy using different assessment methods and across developmental periods. Recent research has shown that the triarchic traits of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition can be operationalized effectively in youth, but longitudinal research is needed to realize the model's potential to advance developmental understanding of psychopathy. We report on the creation and validation of scale measures of the triarchic traits using questionnaire items available in the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB) project, a large-scale longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior that includes measures from multiple modalities (self-report, informant rating, clinical-diagnostic, task-behavioral, physiological). Using a construct-rating and psychometric refinement approach, we developed triarchic scales that showed acceptable reliability, expected intercorrelations, and good temporal stability. The scales showed theory-consistent relations with external criteria including measures of psychopathy, internalizing/externalizing psychopathology, antisocial behavior, and substance use. Findings demonstrate the viability of measuring triarchic traits in the RFAB sample, extend the known nomological network of these traits into the developmental realm, and provide a foundation for follow-up studies examining the etiology of psychopathic traits and their relations with multimodal measures of cognitive-affective function and proneness to clinical problems.
Although recognized as one of the most significant cultural transformations in North America, the reintroduction of the horse to the continent after AD 1492 has been rarely addressed by archaeological science. A key contributing factor behind this limited study is the apparent absence of equine skeletal remains from early historic archaeological contexts. Here, we present a multidisciplinary analysis of a horse skeleton recovered in Lehi, Utah, originally attributed to the Pleistocene. Reanalysis of stratigraphic context and radiocarbon dating indicates a historic age for this horse (cal AD 1681–1939), linking it with Ute or other Indigenous groups, whereas osteological features demonstrate its use for mounted horseback riding—perhaps with a nonframe saddle. DNA analysis indicates that the animal was a female domestic horse, which was likely cared for as part of a breeding herd despite outliving its usefulness in transport. Finally, sequentially sampled stable carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotope values from tooth enamel (δ13C, δ18O, and 87Sr/86Sr) suggest that the horse was raised locally. These results show the utility of archaeological science as applied to horse remains in understanding Indigenous horse pastoralism, whereas consideration of the broader archaeological record suggests a pattern of misidentification of horse bones from early historic contexts.
Over the last year, COVID-19 has emerged as a highly transmissible and lethal infection. As we address this global pandemic, its disproportionate impact on Black, Indigenous, and Latinx communities has served to further magnify the health inequities in access and treatment that persist in our communities. These sobering realities should serve as the impetus for reexamination of the root causes of inequities in our health system. An increased commitment to strategic partnerships between academic and nonacademic health systems, industry, local communities, and policy-makers may serve as the foundation. Here, we examine the impact of the recent COVID-19 pandemic on health care inequities and propose a strategic roadmap for integration of clinical and translational research into our understanding of health inequities.
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
We analyse United States presidential appointee positions subject to Senate confirmation without a confirmed appointee in office. These “vacant” positions are byproducts of American constitutional design, shaped by the interplay of institutional politics. Using a novel dataset, we analyse appointee vacancies across executive branch departments and single-headed agencies from 1989 to 2013. We develop a theoretical model that uncovers the dynamics of vacancy onset and length. We then specify an empirical model and report results highlighting both position and principal–agent relations as critical to the politics of appointee vacancies. Conditional on high status positions reducing the frequency and duration of vacancies, we find important principal–agent considerations from a separation of powers perspective. Appointee positions in agencies ideologically divergent from the relevant Senate committee chair are vacant for less time than in ideologically proximal agencies. Importantly, this relationship strengthens as agency ideology diverges away from the chair and towards the chair’s party extreme.