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Research was conducted to evaluate acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) enzyme activity using a functional malachite green colorimetric assay previously identified as resistant to sethoxydim, and select aryloxyphenoxypropionate (FOPs) herbicides, fenoxaprop, and fluazifop. Two resistant southern crabgrass [Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler] biotypes, R1 and R2, containing an Ile-1781-Leu amino acid substitution and previously identified as resistant to sethoxydim, pinoxaden, and fluazifop but not clethodim was utilized as the resistant chloroplastic ACCase source compared to known susceptible (S) ACCase. Dose-response studies with sethoxydim, clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and pinoxaden (0.6 to 40 µM) were conducted to compare the ACCase enzyme-herbicides interaction of R1, R2, and S using the malachite green functional assay. Assay results indicated that R biotypes required more ACCase-targeting herbicides to inhibit ACCase activity compared to S. IC50 values of all four herbicides for R biotypes were consistently an order of magnitude greater than S. No sequencing differences in the carboxyltransferase domain was observed for R1 and R2, however, R2 IC50 values were greater across all herbicides. These results indicate the malachite green functional assay is effective in evaluating ACCase enzyme activity of R and S biotypes in the presence of ACCase-targeting herbicides, which can be used as a replacement for the 14C-based radiometric functional assay.
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in serum biomarkers of acute brain injury, including white matter and astrocyte injury during chronic foetal hypoxaemia. We have previously shown histopathological changes in myelination and neuronal density in fetuses with chronic foetal hypoxaemia at a level consistent with CHD.
Mid-gestation foetal sheep (110 ± 3 days gestation) were cannulated and attached to a pumpless, low-resistance oxygenator circuit, and incubated in a sterile fluid environment mimicking the intrauterine environment. Fetuses were maintained with an oxygen delivery of 20–25 ml/kg/min (normoxemia) or 14–16 ml/kg/min (hypoxaemia). Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels in the two groups were assessed by ELISA at baseline and at 7, 14, and 21 days of support.
Based on overlapping 95% confidence intervals, there were no statistically significant differences in either Myelin Basic Protein or Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels between the normoxemic and hypoxemic groups, at any time point. No statistically significant correlations were observed between oxygen delivery and levels of Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein.
Chronic foetal hypoxaemia during mid-gestation is not associated with elevated serum levels of acute white matter (Myelin Basic Protein) or astrocyte injury (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein), in this model. In conjunction with our previously reported findings, our data support the hypothesis that the brain dysmaturity with impaired myelination found in fetuses with chronic hypoxaemia is caused by disruption of normal developmental pathways rather than by direct cellular injury.
To describe the occurrence of medical comorbity in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders presenting to the Adult Neurodevelopmental Service (ANDS) multi-disciplinary new case clinic at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in Singapore. We hypothesize that patients with neurodevelopmental disorders have higher rates of medical comorbidity compared to those without a diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorder.
Medical comorbidities are common in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. They may have difficulties managing their medical conditions which could in turn affect their well being, quality of life and life expectancy.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted amongst patients who presented to the clinic from January 2015 to December 2016. The electronic case records of the assessments were de-identified and the medical conditions of patients were collected and analysed.
319 patients attended the ANDS new case clinic in the 2-year study period. 87.1% (278/319) were diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorder while 12.9% (41/319) did not receive any diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder.
58.3% (162/278) of patients with a neurodevelopmental disorder had at least 1 medical comorbidity while only 31.7% (13/41) of patients with no neurodevelopmental disorder had at least 1 medical condition.
Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders had higher rates of epilepsy (12.2% vs 4.9%), cerebral palsy (3.2% vs 0%) but lower rates of having other neurological conditions (1.4% vs 7.3%) compared to those with no neurodevelopmental disorders.
Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders had higher rates of diabetes (6.1% vs 2.4%), hypertension (6.1% vs 2.4%), hyperlipidaemia (7.1% vs 2.4%) and cardiovascular conditions (2.9% vs 0%) than those without a neurodevelopmental disorder.
In terms of other medical comorbidities, patients with neurodevelopmental disorders had higher rates of thyroid abnormalities (4.7% vs 2.4%), respiratory problems (7.6% vs 2.4%), musculoskeletal conditions (5.8% vs 0%), eye issues (5% vs 2.4%) and hearing problems (2.9% vs 0%) but similar rates of dermatological conditions (10.1% vs 9.8%) and gastrointestinal conditions (4.7% vs 4.9%) compared to those with no neurodevelopmental disorders.
Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders have significantly highly rates of medical comorbidity than those without any neurodevelopmental disorders. This study highlights the need to raise awareness of the common medical comorbidities in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders and to ensure adequate screening and referral for follow-up medical care for them.
Northern and southern hemispheric influences—particularly changes in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SSW) and Southern Ocean ventilation—triggered the stepwise atmospheric CO2 increase that accompanied the last deglaciation. One approach for gaining potential insights into past changes in SWW/CO2 upwelling is to reconstruct the positions of the northern oceanic fronts associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Using two deep-sea cores located ~600 km apart off the southern coast of Australia, we detail oceanic changes from ~23 to 6 ka using foraminifer faunal and biomarker alkenone records. Our results indicate a tight coupling between hydrographic and related frontal displacements offshore South Australia (and by analogy, possibly the entire Southern Ocean) and Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate that may help confirm previous hypotheses that the westerlies play a critical role in modulating CO2 uptake and release from the Southern Ocean on millennial and potentially even centennial timescales. The intensity and extent of the northward displacements of the Subtropical Front following well-known NH cold events seem to decrease with progressing NH ice sheet deglaciation and parallel a weakening NH temperature response and amplitude of Intertropical Convergence Zone shifts. In addition, an exceptional poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere fronts occurs during the NH Heinrich Stadial 1. This event was likely facilitated by the NH ice maximum and acted as a coup-de-grâce for glacial ocean stratification and its high CO2 capacitance. Thus, through its influence on the global atmosphere and on ocean mixing, “excessive” NH glaciation could have triggered its own demise by facilitating the destratification of the glacial ocean CO2 state.
Energy deficit is common during prolonged periods of strenuous physical activity and limited sleep, but the extent to which appetite suppression contributes is unclear. The aim of this randomised crossover study was to determine the effects of energy balance on appetite and physiological mediators of appetite during a 72-h period of high physical activity energy expenditure (about 9·6 MJ/d (2300 kcal/d)) and limited sleep designed to simulate military operations (SUSOPS). Ten men consumed an energy-balanced diet while sedentary for 1 d (REST) followed by energy-balanced (BAL) and energy-deficient (DEF) controlled diets during SUSOPS. Appetite ratings, gastric emptying time (GET) and appetite-mediating hormone concentrations were measured. Energy balance was positive during BAL (18 (sd 20) %) and negative during DEF (–43 (sd 9) %). Relative to REST, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption ratings were all higher during DEF (26 (sd 40) %, 56 (sd 71) %, 28 (sd 34) %, respectively) and lower during BAL (–55 (sd 25) %, −52 (sd 27) %, −54 (sd 21) %, respectively; Pcondition < 0·05). Fullness ratings did not differ from REST during DEF, but were 65 (sd 61) % higher during BAL (Pcondition < 0·05). Regression analyses predicted hunger and prospective consumption would be reduced and fullness increased if energy balance was maintained during SUSOPS, and energy deficits of ≥25 % would be required to elicit increases in appetite. Between-condition differences in GET and appetite-mediating hormones identified slowed gastric emptying, increased anorexigenic hormone concentrations and decreased fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations as potential mechanisms of appetite suppression. Findings suggest that physiological responses that suppress appetite may deter energy balance from being achieved during prolonged periods of strenuous activity and limited sleep.
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
We revisit the paper [Automorphy lifting for residually reducible$l$-adic Galois representations, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 28 (2015), 785–870] by the third author. We prove new automorphy lifting theorems for residually reducible Galois representations of unitary type in which the residual representation is permitted to have an arbitrary number of irreducible constituents.
POST goosegrass and other grassy weed control in bermudagrass is problematic. Fewer herbicides that can control goosegrass are available due to regulatory pressure and herbicide resistance. Alternative herbicide options that offer effective control are needed. Previous research demonstrates that topramezone controls goosegrass, crabgrass, and other weed species; however, injury to bermudagrass may be unacceptable. The objective of this research was to evaluate the safening potential of topramezone combinations with different additives on bermudagrass. Field trials were conducted at Auburn University during summer and fall from 2015 to 2018 and 2017 to 2018, respectively. Treatments included topramezone mixtures and methylated seed oil applied in combination with five different additives: triclopyr, green turf pigment, green turf paint, ammonium sulfate, and chelated iron. Bermudagrass bleaching and necrosis symptoms were visually rated. Normalized-difference vegetative index measurements and clipping yield data were also collected. Topramezone plus chelated iron, as well as topramezone plus triclopyr, reduced bleaching potential the best; however, the combination of topramezone plus triclopyr resulted in necrosis that outweighed reductions in bleaching. Masking agents such as green turf paint and green turf pigment were ineffective in reducing injury when applied with topramezone. The combination of topramezone plus ammonium sulfate should be avoided because of the high level of necrosis. Topramezone-associated bleaching symptoms were transient and lasted 7 to 14 d on average. Findings from this research suggest that chelated iron added to topramezone and methylated seed oil mixtures acted as a safener on bermudagrass.
The steep rise in the rate of psychiatric hospital detentions in England is poorly understood.
To identify explanations for the rise in detentions in England since 1983; to test their plausibility and support from evidence; to develop an explanatory model for the rise in detentions.
Hypotheses to explain the rise in detentions were identified from previous literature and stakeholder consultation. We explored associations between national indicators for potential explanatory variables and detention rates in an ecological study. Relevant research was scoped and the plausibility of each hypothesis was rated. Finally, a logic model was developed to illustrate likely contributory factors and pathways to the increase in detentions.
Seventeen hypotheses related to social, service, legal and data-quality factors. Hypotheses supported by available evidence were: changes in legal approaches to patients without decision-making capacity but not actively objecting to admission; demographic changes; increasing psychiatric morbidity. Reductions in the availability or quality of community mental health services and changes in police practice may have contributed to the rise in detentions. Hypothesised factors not supported by evidence were: changes in community crisis care, compulsory community treatment and prescribing practice. Evidence was ambiguous or lacking for other explanations, including the impact of austerity measures and reductions in National Health Service in-patient bed numbers.
Better data are needed about the characteristics and service contexts of those detained. Our logic model highlights likely contributory factors to the rise in detentions in England, priorities for future research and potential policy targets for reducing detentions.
Some accidents of preservation, reuse, discovery, and publication are fascinating. It so happens that the earliest Latin inscription known from Egypt claims, it seems, that, on 26 August 116, one Acutius was the first (Italian or writer of Latin) to reach the sanctuary of Isis on the island of Philae in Upper Egypt and to leave a legible mark in Latin (I.Syène 321). For him to be able to make such an absolute claim, we must assume that no Latin was visible amid the many Greek inscriptions then at Philae and that there were no indications of Italians in those Greek inscriptions. If others had preceded him without leaving written evidence, they were as invisible to Acutius as they are to us. Or, Acutius may have made a relative claim: to be the first, in some respect, in relation to those who accompanied him that day and also incised their names. We can only speculate about just how competitive Acutius was in relation to his companions.
The study of migration in the ancient world unexpectedly became a topic of the global news cycle in the summer of 2017. ‘The Story of Britain’, a BBC cartoon for schools that depicted a black soldier in Roman Britain generated Twitter exchanges, subsequently expanded into blogs, newspaper articles and think pieces around the world. Historians, archaeologists, geneticists, statisticians as well as others from outside academia contributed to a debate about the amount of ethnic diversity in Roman Britain and the origin and impact of ancient migrants to the British Isles. The editors of this volume do not expect that it will have an impact equivalent to the BBC cartoon, but we hope that the chapters within it can both contribute to the gradual disentanglement of scanty, sometimes contradictory, evidence and present new ways of looking at ancient migration, while also laying bare some of the tacit or unwarranted assumptions that have been made.