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Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies are considering adopting a lifecycle approach to assessments to address uncertainties in the evidence base at launch and to revisit the clinical and economic value of therapies in a dynamic clinical landscape. For reassessments of therapies post launch, HTA agencies are looking to real-world evidence (RWE) to enhance the clinical and economic evidence base, though challenges and concerns in using RWE in decision-making exists. Stakeholders are embarking on demonstration projects to address the challenges and concerns and to further define when and how RWE can be used in HTA decision making. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Review piloted a 24-month observational RWE reassessment. Key learnings from this pilot include identifying the benefits and challenges with using RWE in reassessments and considerations on prioritizing and selecting topics relevant for RWE updates.
Recently, low-cost processing approaches that produce textured thin bodies have engendered interest as cost-effective approaches for fabrication of magnetostrictive Fe-Ga alloys. In particular, wire-forming methods that strictly control the solidification direction could lead to some measure of crystallographic texture control. This is critical for development of large magnetostriction in polycrystals and for use of the alloys in actuators, sensors, energy harvesters and other systems. Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga wires have been prepared using an innovative cost-effective approach – based on the Taylor wire method – that combines rapid solidification and deformation processes. The procedure for making magnetostrictive wires is discussed and the wires are evaluated in terms of microstructure, crystallographic texture and magnetostriction. Results show that the Taylor-based approach is an effective and versatile means to draw 1-3 mm diameter textured Fe-Ga wire. Experimentation on the influence of drawing technique and quench conditions on texture development resulted with production of a strong <100> fiber texture in the Fe-Ga wire. Magnetostriction measurements, in the absence of prestress, indicated a maximum magnetostriction of ˜165 ppm in a saturation field of less than 200 mTesla. This is considered a significant strain for bulk polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloys without a pre-stress or a stress-annealing treatment. The unique properties of wires made with the Taylor-based approach coupled with the low intrinsic cost make this an attractive approach for production of textured magnetostrictive wire for a variety of applications.
The spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are being used to construct a catalogue of QSO absorption lines, for use in studies of abundances, relevant radiation fields, number counts as a function of redshift, and other matters, including the evolution of these parameters. The catalogue includes intervening, associated, and BAL absorbers, in order to allow a clearer definition of the relationships between these three classes. We describe the motivation for and the data products of the project to build the SDSS QSO absorption line catalogue.
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