Arminianism. The doctrines of Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609), Dutch Reformed student of the Genevan Calvinist Theodore Beza (1519–1605), as formulated by his followers in the Remonstrance of 1610, had made the following modifications to Calvinist doctrine: Christ died for all men, not just the elect; his saving mission is God's most important work on earth; the individual is involved in his/her own salvation through free will; consequently, through dereliction of duty, the individual may fail to be saved. Aimed at the heart of Calvinist doctrines of predestination of the elect, Arminianism was publicly debated at the Sydnod of Dort of 1618–19, summoned to condemn it. Arminian doctrines were declared inadmissible or heretical, and the Arminians were given the choice of recantation or exile. Although they were viewed as radical reformers, their advocates were also leaders of the established church, such as Archbishop William Laud. However, this did not prevent them from being accused of popery. Laud, who stressed the importance of church ceremony, was thought to be a Roman sympathiser.
Atterbury, Francis (1662–1732), Tory Bishop of Rochester, was made chaplain to King William and Queen Mary even though he was regarded as controversial for his opposition to state ascendancy over the church and his strong advocacy of the rights of the clergy. Queen Anne made him her chaplain in ordinary and, in 1704, Dean of Carlisle. Atterbury had been an active participant in the lower-house convocation assemblies, and he soon became almost as prominent in the House of Lords.