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The current study assessed intake of iron-and-folic-acid (IFA) tablet/syrup (grouped into none, < 100 d of IFA consumption or < 100 IFA and ≥ 100 d of IFA consumption or ≥ 100 IFA) among prospective mothers and its association with various stages of low-birth weight (ELBW, extremely low-birth weight; VLBW, very low-birth weight and LBW, low-birth weight) and neonatal mortality (death during day 0–1, 2–6, 7–27 and 0–27) in India.
The cross-sectional, nationally representative, 2015–2016 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) data were used. Weighted descriptive analysis and multiple binary logistic regression modelling were used.
NFHS-4 covered 640 districts from thirty-seven states and union territories of India.
A total of 120 374 and 143 675 index children aged 0–59 months were included to analyse LBW and neonatal mortality, respectively.
Overall, 30·7 % mothers consumed ≥ 100 IFA in 2015–2016, and this estimate ranged from 0·0 % in Zunheboto district of Nagaland state to 89·5 % in Mahe district of Puducherry of India. Multiple regression analysis revealed that children of mothers who consumed ≥ 100 IFA had lower odds of ELBW, VLBW, LBW and neonatal mortality during day 0–1, as compared with mothers who did not buy/receive any IFA. Consumption of IFA (< 100 IFA and ≥ 100 IFA) had a protective association with neonatal death during day 7–27 and 0–27. Consumption of IFA was not associated with neonatal death during day 2–6.
While ≥ 100 IFA consumption during pregnancy was found to be associated with preventing select types of LBW and neonatal mortality, a large variation in coverage of ≥ 100 IFA consumption across 640 districts is concerning.
Thirty years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first identified, the HIV epidemic continues to cause large-scale human suffering and economic losses. Since featuring prominently in the MDGs, HIV has received unprecedented global political and financial commitment, being allocated 25% of all international assistance for health in 2011. But, despite significant successes, the goal will not be achieved and the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is still one of the most important causes of loss of life and health. The global HIV response will thus have to be a major continued focus of national and international development strategies after 2015.
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