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Malnutrition risk screening in cirrhotic patients is crucial, as poor nutritional status negatively affects disease prognosis and survival. Given that a variety of malnutrition screening tools is usually used in routine clinical practice, the effectiveness of eight screening tools in detecting malnutrition risk in cirrhotic patients was sought. A total of 170 patients (57·1 % male, 59·4 (sd 10·5) years, 50·6 % decompensated ones) with cirrhosis of various aetiologies were enrolled. Nutritional screening was performed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, Nutritional Risk Index, Malnutrition Screening Tool, Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS-2002), Birmingham Nutritional Risk Score, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Royal Free Hospital Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) and Liver Disease Undernutrition Screening Tool (LDUST). Malnutrition diagnosis was defined using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Data on 1-year survival were available for 145 patients. The prevalence of malnutrition risk varied according to the screening tools used, with a range of 13·5–54·1 %. RFH-NPT and LDUST were the most accurate in detecting malnutrition (AUC = 0·885 and 0·892, respectively) with a high sensitivity (97·4 and 94·9 %, respectively) and fair specificity (73·3 and 58 %, respectively). Malnutrition according to SGA was an independent prognostic factor of within 1-year mortality (relative risk was 2·17 (95 % CI 1·0, 4·7), P = 0·049) after adjustment for sex, age, disease aetiology and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, whereas nutrition risk according to RFH-NPT, LDUST and NRS-2002 showed no association. RFH-NPT and LDUST were the only screening tools that proved to be accurate in detecting malnutrition in cirrhotic patients.
Background: Increased heartbeat perception accuracy (HBP-accuracy) may contribute to the pathogenesis of Panic Disorder (PD) without or with Agoraphobia (PDA). Extant research suggests that HBP-accuracy is a rather stable individual characteristic, moreover predictive of worse long-term outcome in PD/PDA patients. However, it remains still unexplored whether HBP-accuracy adversely affects patients’ short-term outcome after structured cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for PD/PDA. Aim: To explore the potential association between HBP-accuracy and the short-term outcome of a structured brief-CBT for the acute treatment of PDA. Method: We assessed baseline HBP-accuracy using the “mental tracking” paradigm in 25 consecutive medication-free, CBT-naive PDA patients. Patients then underwent a structured, protocol-based, 8-session CBT by the same therapist. Outcome measures included the number of panic attacks during the past week, the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Mobility Inventory-Alone subscale (MI-alone). Results: No association emerged between baseline HBP-accuracy and posttreatment changes concerning number of panic attacks. Moreover, higher baseline HBP-accuracy was associated with significantly larger reductions in the scores of the ACQ and the MI-alone scales. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in PDA patients undergoing structured brief-CBT for the acute treatment of their symptoms, higher baseline HBP-accuracy is not associated with worse short-term outcome concerning panic attacks. Furthermore, higher baseline HBP-accuracy may be associated with enhanced therapeutic gains in agoraphobic cognitions and behaviours.