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SDG 7 aims to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Forests contribute to SDG 7 through four pathways: sustainable use of traditional wood fuels, processed wood fuels, liquid biofuels and biopower. We hypothesise that the role of traditional wood fuels (e.g. firewood and charcoal) in household energy portfolios will decline in most low- and middle-income countries, but will not be completely replaced with modern fuels. In the transition to affordable clean fuels, processed wood fuels (e.g. pellets), liquid biofuels produced from forest feedstock, and biopower will play an increasing role in energy service provision. How forest-based transitions to clean energy will fare relative to other renewable energy technologies (including solar, wind and micro-hydro) will depend on how renewable energy policy evolves, and on relative costs and storage capacity. Reaching SDG 7 through the promotion of large-scale hydro and agricultural commodity derived biofuels can threaten forests and forest-based livelihoods. In general, promoting transitions to sustainable forest-based clean energy supports the realisation of other SDGs, highlighting the potential for forests to play a significant role in discourse and action on the SDGs.
To construct a single estimate of the number of percutaneous injuries sustained annually by healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United States.
We combined data collected in 1997 and 1998 at 15 National Surveillance System for Health Care Workers (NaSH) hospitals and 45 Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) hospitals. The combined data, taken as a sample of all U.S. hospitals, were adjusted for underreporting. The estimate of the number of percutaneous injuries nationwide was obtained by weighting the number of percutaneous injuries at each hospital by the number of admissions in all U.S. hospitals relative to the number of admissions at that hospital.
The estimated number of percutaneous injuries sustained annually by hospital-based HCWs was 384,325 (95% confidence interval, 311,091 to 463,922). The number of percutaneous injuries sustained by HCWs outside of the hospital setting was not estimated.
Although our estimate is smaller than some previously published estimates of percutaneous injuries among HCWs, its magnitude remains a concern and emphasizes the urgent need to implement prevention strategies. In addition, improved surveillance could be used to monitor injury trends in all healthcare settings and evaluate the impact of prevention interventions.
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