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This paper integrates the first rock art directly dated with radiocarbon (14C) in Southeast Asia with the archaeological activity in the area and with stylistically similar rock art in the region. Peñablanca is a hotspot of archaeological research that includes the oldest dates for human remains in the Philippines. The caves in Peñablanca with known rock art were revisited and only 37.6% of the original recorded figures were found; the others are likely lost to agents of deterioration. A sample was collected from an anthropomorph and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dated to 3570–3460 cal BP. The date corresponds to archaeological activity in the area and provides a more holistic view of the people inhabiting the Peñablanca caves at that time. A systematic review was used to find similar black anthropomorph motifs in Southeast Asia to identify potential connections across the region and provide a possible chronological association.
Across literature on loneliness and ageing, little attention is given to the intersection of ageing, sexuality and masculinities, and how this shapes the social connections of older men. We report findings from a qualitative study of older men's experiences of loneliness and social participation, focusing on perspectives from two groups who are single and/or living alone: men identifying as (a) heterosexual and (b) gay (not bisexual). We present findings generated from semi-structured interviews with 72 men residing in England (65–95 years). We discuss three prominent themes: (a) loneliness, loss and social dislocation; (b) diverging life-events that trigger loneliness; and (c) variations in visibility and exclusion across social settings. Embedded within men's descriptions of loneliness is a running theme of social dislocation that speaks to a wider sense of social separation and estrangement. Unique to gay men's accounts are the ways in which experiences of loneliness and social isolation are compounded by living in heteronormative social environments and their encounters with ageism in gay social settings. Older men's accounts convey anxieties about visibility and anticipated exclusion across social settings shared with other men that vary according to sexual identity and context. We discuss how sexuality and being single and/or living alone impact on older men's social participation as we seek to move beyond a heterocentric understanding of loneliness.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) is a cognitive behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CPT is effective in treating combat-related PTSD among Veterans and active duty service members. It is unknown whether improvement in PTSD is related to accommodation of patient preference of the modality of therapy, such as in-office, telehealth, and in-home settings. An equipoise-stratified randomization design allows for complete randomization of participants who are interested and eligible for all three treatment arms. It also allows participants to reject one treatment arm if they are not interested or eligible. Participants who elect to opt out of one arm are randomized to one of the two remaining treatment arms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate differences in patient satisfaction, treatment stigma beliefs, and credibility beliefs based on patient treatment modality preference. The second aim of this study was to examine if baseline satisfaction, stigma beliefs, and credibility beliefs predicted PTSD treatment outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Active duty service members and veterans with PTSD (N = 123) were randomized to one of three arms using an equipoise stratified randomization. Participants underwent diagnostic interviews for PTSD at baseline and post-treatment and completed self-report measures of satisfaction, stigma, credibility and expectancies of therapy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A series of ANOVAs indicated that there were group differences on patient stigma beliefs regarding mental health, F = 5.61, p = .001, and therapist credibility, F = 5.11, p = .002. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants who did not opt of any treatment arm demonstrated lower levels of stigma beliefs compared to participants who opted-out of in-office, p = .001. Participants who opted out of in-home viewed the therapist as less credible compared to participants who did not opt of any arm, p = .004. Multiple regression analysis found that baseline patient satisfaction, stigma beliefs, and credibility beliefs were not predictive of PTSD treatment outcomes, p > .05. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Combat PTSD patients may opt out of in-office therapy due to mental health stigma beliefs, and visibility in mental health clinics may be a concern. For patients who opted out of in-home therapy, lack of credibility may have decreased participants’ desire for therapists to enter their home. Despite concerns of mental health stigma and the credibility of the therapy in certain treatment arms, patients in each treatment arm significantly improved in PTSD symptomotology. Moreover, patient characteristics, including satisfaction, stigma, and credibility of the therapy, did not significantly predict treatment outcomes, which demonstrates the robustness of Cognitive Processing Therapy.
While research on the health and wellbeing of older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults is gradually expanding, research on older trans and gender non-conforming (TGNC) adults lags behind. Current scholarship about this group raises important questions about the intersection of ageing and gender identity for enhancing care and support for older TGNC adults and the lack of preparedness of health and social professionals for meeting these needs. In this paper, we examine the accounts of 22 TGNC individuals (50–74 years) on the topic of ageing and unpack their concerns for and expectations of later life. We present qualitative findings from a study of gender identity, ageing and care, based in Wales, United Kingdom. Data were generated from two-part interviews with each participant. Four key themes are identified: (a) facilitative factors for transitioning in mid- to later life; (b) growing older as a new lease of life; (c) growing older: regrets, delays and uncertainties; and (d) ambivalent expectations of social care services. We argue that growing older as TGNC can be experienced across a multitude of standpoints, ranging from a new lease of life to a time of regret and uncertainty. We critically discuss emergent notions of trans time, precarity and uncertainty running across participants’ accounts, and the implications for enhancing recognition of gender non-conformity and gender identity in social gerontology.
(1) To characterise changes in dead space fraction during the first 120 post-operative hours in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, including hybrid procedure; (2) to document whether dead space fraction varied by shunt type (Blalock–Taussig shunt and Sano) and hybrid procedure; and (3) to determine the association between dead space fraction and outcomes.
Retrospective chart review in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit over a consecutive 30-month period. A linear mixed model was used to determine the differences in dead space over time. Multivariable linear regression and a multivariable linear mixed model were used to assess the association between dead space and outcomes at different time points and over time, respectively.
Thirty-four neonates received either a Blalock–Taussig shunt (20.5%), Sano shunt (59%), or hybrid procedure (20.5%). Hospital mortality was 8.8%. Dead space fractions in patients undergoing the hybrid procedure were significantly lower on day 1 (p = 0.01) and day 2 (p = 0.02) and increased over time. A dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was significantly associated with decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups (p < 0.001).
Dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was associated with lower duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups. A more comprehensive, prospective assessment of dead space in this delicate patient population would likely be beneficial in improving outcomes.
The illegal killing and taking of wild birds remains a major threat on a global scale. However, there are few quantitative data on the species affected and countries involved. We quantified the scale and scope of this issue in Northern and Central Europe and the Caucasus, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. The issue was reported to be widespread across the region and affects almost all countries/territories assessed. We estimated that 0.4–2.1 million birds per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region. The highest estimate of illegal killing in the region was for Azerbaijan (0.2-1.0 million birds per year). Out of the 20 worst locations identified, 13 were located in the Caucasus. Birds were reported to be illegally killed/taken primarily for sport and food in the Caucasus and for sport and predator/pest control in both Northern and Central Europe. All of the 28 countries assessed are parties to the Bern Convention and 19 are also European Union Member States. There are specific initiatives under both these policy instruments to tackle this threat, yet our data showed that illegal killing and taking is still occurring and is not restricted to Mediterranean European countries. Markedly increased effort is required to ensure that existing legislation is adequately implemented and complied with/enforced on the ground. Our study also highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing and taking of birds in the region. It is a priority, identified by relevant initiatives under the Bern Convention and the European Union, to implement systematic monitoring of illegal killing and taking and to collate robust data, allowing stakeholders to set priorities, track trends and monitor the effectiveness of responses.
Stylistic composition is a creative musical activity, in which students as well as renowned composers write according to the style of another composer or period. We describe and evaluate two computational models of stylistic composition, called Racchman-Oct2010 (random constrained chain of Markovian nodes, October 2010) and Racchmaninof-Oct2010 (Racchman with inheritance of form). The former is a constrained Markov model, and the latter embeds this model in an analogy-based design system. Racchmaninof-Oct2010 applies a pattern discovery algorithm called SIACT and a perceptually validated formula for rating pattern importance, to guide the generation of a new target design from an existing source design. A listening study is reported concerning human judgments of music excerpts that are, to varying degrees, in the style of mazurkas by Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849). The listening study acts as an evaluation of the two computational models and a third, benchmark system, called Experiments in Musical Intelligence. Judges' responses indicate that some aspects of musical style, such as phrasing and rhythm, are being modeled effectively by our algorithms. Judgments are also used to identify areas for future improvements. We discuss the broader implications of this work for the fields of engineering and design, where there is potential to make use of our models of hierarchical repetitive structure.
The population is ageing and the rights, welfare and wellbeing of this age cohort are becoming more globally prominent and the focus of much policy development. Whilst research is leading the way and informing this in many spheres of an older person's life, this is not the case for sexual health. Campaigns of sexual health literacy and intervention are targeted at ‘at-risk’ cohorts, largely ignoring those over 60 years of age. With increases in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in this age group and the potentially serious nature of untreated conditions, this review highlights the need for increased research, health literacy and targeted interventions. Social, societal and physical barriers preventing older adults engaging with safer sex have been identified, highlighting the extent of the attitudinal and policy shifts required to provide age parity.
This paper examines the ways in which older people's residential and nursing homes can constitute heteronormative environments – social spaces in which the same-sex attractions and desires of residents are disregarded in the provision of everyday care. The aim of this discussion is to examine the synergies and differences between older lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults' expectations for future care home provision and the expectations of care staff and managers in providing residential services to older people with diverse sexual backgrounds. We present qualitative evidence from research into the provision of care environments in Wales. In this paper, we present findings from two cohorts: first, from five focus groups with care and nursing staff and managers; and second, from 29 semi-structured interviews with older LGB adults (50–76 years) residing in urban and rural locations across Wales. We argue that residential care environments can constitute heterosexualised spaces in which LGB identities are neglected in comparison to the needs and preferences of other residents. To this extent, we discuss how care staff and managers can be more attentive and responsive to the sexual biographies of all residents and argue against the separation of care and sexual orientation in practice.
Open science is a new concept for the practice of experimental laboratory-based research, such as drug discovery. The authors have recently gained experience in how to run such projects and here describe some straightforward steps others may wish to take towards more openness in their own research programmes. Existing and inexpensive online tools can solve many challenges, while some psychological barriers to the free sharing of all data and ideas are more substantial.
Malaria is a disease that still affects a significant proportion of the global human population. Whilst advances have been made in lowering the numbers of cases and deaths, it is clear that a strategy based solely on disease control year on year, without reducing transmission and ultimately eradicating the parasite, is unsustainable. This article highlights the current mainstay treatments alongside a selection of emerging new clinical molecules from the portfolio of Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) and our partners. In each case, the key highlights from each research phase are described to demonstrate how these new potential medicines were discovered. Given the increased focus of the community on eradicating the disease, the strategy for next generation combination medicines that will provide such potential is explained.
The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in voicing identification, discrimination, and categorical perception induced by identification training centered on three different training values. One group of French-speaking adults was trained across a universal auditory boundary (−30 ms voice onset time), and two other groups were trained across arbitrary boundaries (−45 or −60 ms voice onset time). A control group did not receive any training. The results showed that both the −30 and the −45 training groups exhibited a 10 ms shift in the identification boundary. Moreover, for the −30 training group, discrimination and categorical perception changed around the French phonological boundary. These results illustrate the possibility of modifying the French phonological perception after short-time training, particularly when centered on a universal boundary. However, training only had limited effects and even strengthened the phonological boundary, congruent with the hypothesis that this boundary is acquired by a perceptual “coupling” between universal boundaries.
Objective: The paucity of evidence and wide variation among communities creates challenges for developing congressionally mandated national performance standards for public health preparedness. Using countermeasure dispensing as an example, we present an approach for developing standards that balances national uniformity and local flexibility, consistent with the quality of evidence available.
Methods: We used multiple methods, including a survey of community practices, mathematical modeling, and expert panel discussion.
Results: The article presents recommended dispensing standards, along with a general framework that can be used to analyze tradeoffs involved in developing other preparedness standards.
Conclusions: Standards can be developed using existing evidence, but would be helped immensely by a stronger evidence base.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2010;4:285-290)
The 5HTTLPR genetic variant of the serotonin transporter gene (SERT or
5-HTT), which is comprised of a short (SERT-s) and a long (SERT-l)
allele, is associated with major depressive disorder and post-traumatic
The present study sought to determine whether the total thalamus and
major subregions are altered in size in major depressive disorder and in
relation to the 5HTTLPR genotype.
We investigated the influence of 5HTTLPR genotype, psychiatric diagnosis,
suicide and other clinical factors on the volume of the entire
Major depressive disorder, SERT-ss genotype and suicide emerged as
independent factors contributing to an enlargement of the total thalamus.
The majority of the volume enlargement associated with the SERT-ss
genotype occurred in the pulvinar, whereas enlargement associated with
major depressive disorder occurred in the limbic nuclei and in other
regions of the thalamus. A history of antidepressant treatment was
associated with reduced thalamic volume.
The 5HTTLPR genetic variation may affect behaviour and psychiatric
conditions, in part, by altering the anatomy of the thalamus.
Over current stabilization of YBa2Cu30x (YBCO) coated conductor high temperature superconductor tape is required in most applications. The conductor must carry currents in excess of the critical current, Ic, without damage during over current events. Conductor damage is the result of joule heating and excessive temperature rise in regions with low Ic. We have developed and applied a measurement technique using a locally applied magnetic field with a high spatial gradient to define a small area over which the Ic is depressed. By measuring the voltage and temperature as a function of current, power dissipation and temperature rise were determined. Unstabilized conductors experienced thermal runaway and are easily damaged. Copper stabilizers applied by electroplating decreased dramatically the temperature rise and increased the level of power dissipation compared with the unstabilized conductor.