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Three tapeworm species belonging to the genus Atractolytocestus Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) were reported from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 in the People's Republic of China so far: Atractolytocestus sagittatus; Atractolytocestus tenuicollis; and Atractolytocestus huronensis. In this study, we identified a putatively new tapeworm species in common carp from the Danjiangkou Reservoir in Central China (Hubei Province). The species is morphologically similar to A. sagittatus, but it differed conspicuously in sequences of three molecular markers. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 2 sequence identity of the new species was 94.7–95.5%, 91.8–92.7% and 80.0–83.9% with A. huronensis, A. tenuicollis and A. sagittatus, respectively. cytochrome c oxidase and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 sequence identity with these three species was lower than 92%. We conclude that this is a new tapeworm species, and we named it after the locality: Atractolytocestus danjiangkouensis n. sp.
The order Onchoproteocephalidea (Eucestoda) was recently erected to accommodate the hook-bearing tetraphyllideans and the proteocephalideans, which are characterized by internal proglottization and a tetra-acetabulate scolex. The recognized subfamilies in the Proteocephalidae appeared to be non-monophyletic based on 28S recombinant DNA (rDNA) sequence data. Other molecular markers with higher phylogenetic resolution, such as large mitochondrial DNA fragments and multiple genes, are obviously needed. Thus the mitochondrial genome of Gangesia oligonchis, belonging to the putative earliest diverging group of the Proteocephalidae, was sequenced. The circular mitogenome of G. oligonchis was 13,958 bp in size, and contained the standard 36 genes: 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and 12 protein-coding genes, as well as two major non-coding regions. A short NCR and a large NCR (lNCR) region were 216 bp and 419 bp in size, respectively. Highly repetitive regions in the lNCR region were detected with that of 11 repeat units. The mitogenome of G. oligonchis shared 71.1% nucleotide identity with Testudotaenia sp. WL-2016. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods indicated that G. oligonchis formed a sister clade with Testudotaenia sp. WL-2016 with maximum support. The ordinal topology is (Caryophyllidea, (Diphyllobothriidea, (Bothriocephalidea, (Onchoproteocephalidea, Cyclophyllidea)))). The mitogenomic gene arrangement of G. oligonchis was identical to that of Testudotaenia sp. WL-2016. Both mitogenomic and nuclear sequence data for many more taxa are required to effectively explore the inter-relationships among the Onchoproteocephalidea.
Fourteen pregnant rabbits were each infected with 300 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and divided into two groups. Group M (n = 8) was infected during mid-gestation (the organogenetic stage) and group L (n = 6) was infected during late-gestation (the post-organogenetic stage). Mother rabbits and rabbit kittens were killed 45–60 days after infection and perfused in order to obtain worm counts. Furthermore, faecal egg counts and tissue egg counts from livers were obtained from the mother rabbits as well as the rabbit kittens. All mother rabbits became infected harbouring 207.6 ± 20.2 and 220.0 ± 27.5 adult worms in group M and L, respectively. In groups M and L, 13.5% and 46.7% of the kittens were infected, respectively. In 12 of 14 litters at least one kitten was infected. The infected kittens harboured between one and three adult S. japonicum. The livers of the kittens infected with a worm pair displaced lesions as a result of egg deposition. The results, therefore, show that congenital transmission of S. japonicumcan occur in rabbits. The close anatomical resemblance between the rabbit and human placenta may be indicative of the presence of congenital transmission of S. japonicum infection in humans.
The Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate electron transport in bulk, wurtzite phase AlxGa1−xN. A multi-valley analytical band model consisting of five spherical, non-parabolic conduction band valleys at the Γ, U, M, and K symmetry points of the Brillouin zone is matched to band structures of GaN and AlN. Parameters for the AlxGa1−xN alloy are obtained by linear interpolation. The Monte Carlo simulations are performed for ambient temperatures in the range of 300K to 600K. Scattering mechanisms taken into account include ionized impurity scattering and alloy scattering, in addition to deformation potential scattering (intra- and inter-valley), and polar optical phonon scattering. We present results for the electron steady-state drift velocity and the valley occupancy for electric fields up to 500 kV/cm. Low-field drift mobilities are extracted from the Monte Carlo calculations as functions of the electron concentration, of the ambient temperature, and of the alloy composition.
We present calculated longitudinal frequency and wavevector dependent dielectric functions of zincblende and wurtzite structure GaN using band energies and wavefunctions generated in the framework of the empirical pseudopotential method. We discuss the anisotropy of the static dielectric function and find that our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data for |q| ₒ 0.
In this paper, we present ensemble Monte Carlo based calculations of electron initiated impact ionization in bulk zincblende GaN using a wavevector dependent formulation of the interband impact ionization transition rate. These are the first reported estimates, either theoretical or experimental, of the impact ionization rates in GaN. The transition rate is determined from Fermi’s golden rule for a two-body screened Coulomb interaction using a numerically determined dielectric function as well as by numerically integrating over all of the possible final states. The Monte Carlo simulator includes the full details of the first four conduction bands derived from an empirical pseudopotential calculation as well as all of the relevant phonon scattering mechanisms. It is found that the ionization rate has a relatively "soft" threshold.
Microstructural modification of high temperature superconductor (HTS) single-crystal plates of T1-1212 and T1-2212 (numbers designate the Tl/Ba/Ca/Cu cation ratio) was studied during 1.5 MeV Kr+ and Xe+ ion irradiation with in-situ electron diffraction and after ion irradiation with high resolution TEM (HRTEM). Similar in-situ temperature dependence effects are seen for both phases. During irradiations from 22K to 673K, an amorphous halo develops after very low ion dose or fluence (l.7X1012 ions/cm2). During irradiation at 100K and 300K, complete amorphization is obtained, while at 22K and ≥533K, the halo fades slightly and a polycrystalline ring pattern develops, indicating ion irradiation induced crystallization occurred. After a low ion dose (8.5XlO12ions/cm2) at 100K and 300K, HRTEM reveals amorphous regions 5 -20 nm in size which are not columnar and do not all penetrate the entire sample thickness. At 22K and ≥533K, Moire fringes and misoriented crystallites of cascade size are observed. The 4 - 6nm crystallites are thallium-rich.
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