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This paper investigates the aerodynamics of a wing under figure-of-eight flapping motion based on Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The kinematic of a wing under figure-of-eight motion creates a condition with a variable angle-of-attack. The effect of using different angles of attack at an initial condition, namely initial pitch angles, for the wing and the spatial size of the figure-of-eight pattern, namely the input link angle, is investigated. The initial pitch angles input is varied from 0° to 330° in steps of 30°, and the input link angles used are 30°, 45°, and 60°. The Young’s modulus of the wing is 3.4 GPa spanwise, which is the elastic modulus of balsa wood material. In comparison with an initial pitch angle of 0°, the 90° initial pitch angle shows much better flight performance in terms of lift generated and stability. The results show that the maximum average lift coefficient of 0.393 occurs at the 90° initial pitch angle. The maximum lift-induced moment for the 90° initial pitch angle is only 5.55% of the maximum lift induced moment for the 0° initial pitch angle. A higher input link angle generates a greater lift force. The pressure distribution in the vicinity of the wing area and the von Mises stress of the wing are also presented.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Abnormal effort-based decision-making represents a potential mechanism underlying motivational deficits (amotivation) in psychotic disorders. Previous research identified effort allocation impairment in chronic schizophrenia and focused mostly on physical effort modality. No study has investigated cognitive effort allocation in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Cognitive effort allocation was examined in 40 FEP patients and 44 demographically-matched healthy controls, using Cognitive Effort-Discounting (COGED) paradigm which quantified participants’ willingness to expend cognitive effort in terms of explicit, continuous discounting of monetary rewards based on parametrically-varied cognitive demands (levels N of N-back task). Relationship between reward-discounting and amotivation was investigated. Group differences in reward-magnitude and effort-cost sensitivity, and differential associations of these sensitivity indices with amotivation were explored.
Patients displayed significantly greater reward-discounting than controls. In particular, such discounting was most pronounced in patients with high levels of amotivation even when N-back performance and reward base amount were taken into consideration. Moreover, patients exhibited reduced reward-benefit sensitivity and effort-cost sensitivity relative to controls, and that decreased sensitivity to reward-benefit but not effort-cost was correlated with diminished motivation. Reward-discounting and sensitivity indices were generally unrelated to other symptom dimensions, antipsychotic dose and cognitive deficits.
This study provides the first evidence of cognitive effort-based decision-making impairment in FEP, and indicates that decreased effort expenditure is associated with amotivation. Our findings further suggest that abnormal effort allocation and amotivation might primarily be related to blunted reward valuation. Prospective research is required to clarify the utility of effort-based measures in predicting amotivation and functional outcome in FEP.
Better understanding of interplay among symptoms, cognition and functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) is crucial to promoting functional recovery. Network analysis is a promising data-driven approach to elucidating complex interactions among psychopathological variables in psychosis, but has not been applied in FEP.
This study employed network analysis to examine inter-relationships among a wide array of variables encompassing psychopathology, premorbid and onset characteristics, cognition, subjective quality-of-life and psychosocial functioning in 323 adult FEP patients in Hong Kong. Graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) combined with extended Bayesian information criterion (BIC) model selection was used for network construction. Importance of individual nodes in a generated network was quantified by centrality analyses.
Our results showed that amotivation played the most central role and had the strongest associations with other variables in the network, as indexed by node strength. Amotivation and diminished expression displayed differential relationships with other nodes, supporting the validity of two-factor negative symptom structure. Psychosocial functioning was most strongly connected with amotivation and was weakly linked to several other variables. Within cognitive domain, digit span demonstrated the highest centrality and was connected with most of the other cognitive variables. Exploratory analysis revealed no significant gender differences in network structure and global strength.
Our results suggest the pivotal role of amotivation in psychopathology network of FEP and indicate its critical association with psychosocial functioning. Further research is required to verify the clinical significance of diminished motivation on functional outcome in the early course of psychotic illness.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
Kuratite, ideally Ca4(Fe2+10Ti2)O4[Si8Al4O36], the Fe2+-analogue of rhönite and a new member of the sapphirine supergroup, was identified from the D'Orbigny angrite meteorite by electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Based on the least-squares refinement of 25 d-spacings measured from selected-area electron diffraction patterns of 11 zone axes, the symmetry of kuratite was shown to be triclinic (space group by analogy to rhönite) with a = 10.513(7), b = 10.887(7), c = 9.004(18) Å, α = 105.97(13), β = 96.00(12), γ = 124.82(04)°, V = 767 ± 2 Å3 and Z = 1 for the 40 oxygen formula. The empirical formula based on eight electron microprobe analyses is (Ca3.88Na0.02REE3+0.03Mn0.03Mg0.01Ni0.02Zn0.01Sr0.01)∑4.01 (Fe2+9.989.9Ti2.00)∑11.98(Si7.80Al3.52Fe3+0.64P0.05S0.02)∑12.03O39.98F0.01Cl0.01. The simplified formula is Ca4(Fe2+10Ti2)O4[Si8Al4O36]. Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed four main bands resembling those of lunar rhönite but with higher frequencies due to different chemical composition. Analogous to the occurrence of kuratite in terrestrial basaltic rocks, kuratite coexisting with Al, Ti-bearing hedenbergite, ulvöspinel, iron-sulfide, tsangpoite, Ca-rich fayalite and kirschsteinite in D'Orbigny angrite most probably was formed at >1000°C by rapid cooling of an interstitial melt, which is subsilicic, almost Mg-free but enriched in Al-P-Ca-Ti-Fe.
In linear system, in-plane motions are decoupled from out-of-plane motions for planar frame structures. A theoretical method is proposed that permits the efficient calculations of modal characteristics of planar multi-story frame structures. There are 3 × m beam components for a planar m-story frame structure. By analyzing the transverse and longitudinal motions of each component simultaneously and considering the compatibility requirements across each frame joint, the undetermined variables of the entire m-story frame structure system can be reduced to six, regardless of the number of stories, and that can be determined by the application of the boundary conditions. The main feature of this method is to decrease the dimensions of the matrix involved in the finite element methods and certain other analytical methods.
We present a high precision frequency determination method for digitized NMR FID signals. The method employs high precision numerical integration rather than simple summation as in many other techniques. With no independent knowledge of the other parameters of a NMR FID signal (phase ф, amplitude A, and transverse relaxation time T2) this method can determine the signal frequency f0 with a precision of if the observation time T ≫ T2. The method is especially convenient when the detailed shape of the observed FT NMR spectrum is not well defined. When T2 is +∞ and the signal becomes pure sinusoidal, the precision of the method is which is one order more precise than the ±1 count error induced precision of a typical frequency counter. Analysis of this method shows that the integration reduces the noise by bandwidth narrowing as in a lock-in amplifier, and no extra signal filters are needed. For a pure sinusoidal signal we find from numerical simulations that the noise-induced error in this method reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Band (CRLB) on frequency determination. For the damped sinusoidal case of most interest, the noise-induced error is found to be within a factor of 2 of CRLB when the measurement time T is 2 or 3 times larger than T2. We discuss possible improvements for the precision of this method.
We survey HII free-free emission around ∼60 spectroscopically confirmed young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 3.3 and 5.5 cm. From each YSOs' infrared spectrum, we: a) quantify how embedded/evolved the YSO is through principle component analysis (PCA) of the silicate absorption (Seale et al. 2009); and b) estimate the mass from SED models (Robitaille et al. 2007). We have four main results: (1) Based on mass estimates from SED models and ATCA detection limits, we find that most massive YSOs are in HII regions regardless of age; (2) Older massive YSOs (as indicated by silicate PCA index) are much more likely to be resolved than younger YSOs, indicating evolving HII regions; (3) Resolved (typically older) sources usually have lower densities. Thus, in our survey we see a transition from ultra-compact HII to HII regions; and (4) We find that accretion about the massive YSO is likely non-spherical, resulting in HII regions in the shape of prolate spheroids.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
Normal virulent B. anthracis all possess the genetical potentiality of producing capsules, but the capsule is only produced in vivo or under special cultural conditions suitable for capsule formation, especially in the presence of CO2.
During multiplication the potentially capsulated cells regularly produce a small number of a stable non-capsulated avirulent variant. All laboratory stock cultures of B. anthracis examined were found to contain from 0·14 to 32·4% of this avirulent variant. The variant has also been demonstrated in hair and wool from anthrax endemic areas, which suggests that the dissociation may also occur in nature.
Both the normal potentially capsulated cell and the variant incapable of producing capsules grow on plain agar in air as rough colonies with apparently non-capsulated cells. But when they are grown on serum agar in the presence of CO2, the normal potentially capsulated cell gives rise to a smooth mucoid colony with fully capsulated cells, while the variant still produces a rough colony with non-capsulated cells. If we regard the smooth mucoid colony produced by normal virulent B. anthracis on serum agar in CO2 as the normal colony form of B. anthracis, then the dissociation of the avirulent non-capsulated variant with the rough colony form falls in line with the usual S-R dissociation of other bacteria.
The more widely known variation of B. anthracis, which had long been held as an exception to the usual S-R variation of other bacteria, refers to colonies grown on plain agar in air. This variation is different from the one just described and is not so clear-cut and significant. Its underlying cause is not quite clear except that the chain length of the growth appears to play some part.
A summarized picture showing the whole range of variation in colony appearance and cell structure of B. anthracis is presented.
A study was made in liquid medium over 7 days at 37° C. of the inhibitory action of nineteen antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal drugs on twenty strains of M. gallisepticum, eight other avian mycoplasmata, six mammalian mycoplasmata, two saprophytic mycoplasmata and the L-form of Streptobacillus moniliformis (L–1).
The twenty strains of M. gallisepticum from Britain and other countries showed a similar range of drug sensitivity except where resistant strains were included. Tylosin and demethylchlortetracycline appeared to have the highest inhibitory action, followed by erythromycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and ethidium bromide. A ‘Zone Phenomenon’ frequently occurred with sodium aurothiomalate, inhibition often being observed between 0·1 and 2·0 μg./ml. Polymixin and nystatin had no inhibitory effect on the growth of any mycoplasmata tested. With the exception of erythromycin and streptomycin in some cases, the pattern of sensitivity observed with the mycoplasmata of diverse origin was similar to that of M. gallisepticum, most strains, however, being somewhat more resistant than M. gallisepticum to many of the drugs.
Immunoassays are currently the main analytical technique for quantification of a wide range of analytes of clinical, medical, biotechnological, and environmental significance with high sensitivity and specificity. Miniaturization of immunoassays is achieved using microfluidics coupled with integrated optical detection of the antibody-antigen molecular recognition reaction using thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photodiodes. The detection system used consists of an a-Si:H photodiode aligned with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. An enzymatic reaction taking place in the microchannel yields a product which is a light-absorbent molecule and hence can be optically detected by the integrated photodiode. Specific antigen-antibody reaction was detected and distinguished from the non-specific reaction.
The modified Reynolds equation for power law fluid is derived from the viscous adsorption theory for thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication (TFEHL). The differences between classical non-Newtonian EHL and non-Newtonian TFEHL are discussed. Results show that the proposed model can reasonably calculate the pressure distribution, the film thickness, the velocity distribution and the average viscosity under thin film lubrication. The thickness (δ), the viscosity (m1), and the flow index (n1) of the adsorption layer influence significantly the lubrication characteristics of the contact conjunction. Furthermore, the film thickness increases with the increase of n1 and the film thickness affected by m1 is greater than that affected by n1, but the effect of n1 produces a very small difference in the pressure distributions. In addition, the greater n1, the smaller the change of velocity distribution in the adsorption layer, and the greater the change of velocity distribution in the middle layer. The larger δ and n1, the larger the deviation on log (film thickness) vs. log (speed) produced in the very thin film regime. In the region of the flow index ratio between 1.0 and 1.3, the difference in film thickness is significant. When the flow index of the adsorption layer is 1.6 times greater than the flow index of the middle layer, the adsorption layer is generally looked upon as a “solid-like”.
Polyethylene (PE) and silicone rubber substrates were irradiated at an acceleration voltage of 7kV and a dose of 1×1015 ions/cm2 by the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ion beams, and then soaked in CaCl2 solution. Apatite-forming ability of the substrates was examined using a metastable calcium phosphate solution that had 1.5 times the ion concentrations of a normal simulated body fluid (1.5SBF). After the irradiation, the hydrophilic functional groups such as COOH and silicon oxide cluster (SiOx) were formed at the PE and silicone rubber surfaces, respectively. The hydrophilicity of the substrates was remarkably improved by the irradiation. The irradiated PE and silicone rubber substrates formed apatite in 1.5SBF, whereas unirradiated ones did not form it. These results suggest that the functional groups such as COOH groups and Si-OH groups induced apatite nucleation in 1.5SBF.
Ion beam-based techniques offer various possibilities for robust spatial control of nanoparticles. Since ion implantation is inherently good at depth control of solutes or nanoparticles, additional lateral control may lead to 3D control of nanoparticles. We pursue a lateral-control method of nanoparticle assembly by controlling photon-energy field under ion implantation. Laser is irradiated into a-SiO2, either sequentially or simultaneously with ion implantation. Ions of 60 keV Cu- or 3 MeV Cu2+ and photons of 532 nm are used to study effects on nanoparticle evolution. Simultaneous laser irradiation under ion implantation enhances surface plasmon resonance (SPR), i.e., nanoparticle precipitation, while sequential laser irradiation of 532 nm tends to cause a decay of SPR, i.e., dissolution of Cu nanoparticles. The energy-field perturbation of laser, interactive with nanoparticle evolution, can be used for controlling nanoparticle assembly.