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Assess turnaround time (TAT) and cost-benefit of on-site C. auris screening and its impact on length of stay (LOS) and costs compared to reference laboratories.
Before-and-after retrospective cohort study.
Large-tertiary medical center.
We validated an on-site polymerase chain reaction-based testing platform for C. auris and retrospectively reviewed hospitalized adults who screened negative before and after platform implementation. We constructed multivariable models to assess the association of screening negative with hospital LOS/cost in the pre and postimplementation periods. We adjusted for confounders such as demographics and indwelling device use, and compared TATs for all samples tested.
The sensitivity and specificity of the testing platform were 100% and 98.11%, respectively, compared to send-out testing. The clinical cohort included 287 adults in the pre and 1,266 postimplementation period. The TAT was reduced by more than 2 days (3 (interquartile range (IQR): 2.0, 7.0) vs 0.42 (IQR: 0.24, 0.81), p < 0.001). Median LOS was significantly lower in the postimplementation period; however, this was no longer evident after adjustment. In relation to total cost, the time period had an effect of $6,965 (95% CI: −$481, $14,412); p = 0.067) on reducing the cost. The median adjusted total cost per patient was $7,045 (IQR: $3,805, $13,924) less in the post vs the preimplementation period.
Our assessment did not find a statistically significant change in LOS, nevertheless, on-site testing was not cost-prohibitive for the institution. The value of on-site testing may be supported if an institutional C. auris reduction strategy emphasizes faster TATs.
Background: Tuberculosis is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Intracranial tuberculoma is a rare complication of extrapulmonary tuberculosis due to hematogenous spread to subpial and subependymal regions. Intracranial tuberculoma can occur with or without meningitis. Methods: A 3-year-old male who recently emigrated from Sudan presented to the emergency department with right-sided seizures lasting 30 minutes which were aborted with levetiracetam and midazolam. CT head revealed a multilobulated left supratentorial mass, with solid and cystic components measuring 8.0 x 4.8 x 6.5 cm. The patient had successful surgical resection of the mass which was positive for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. He was started on rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and fluoroquinolone and discharged home in stable condition. Results: Literature review on pediatric intracranial tuberculoma was performed which included 48 studies (n=49). The mean age was 8.8 ± 5.4 years with slight female predilection (59%). Predominant solitary tuberculomas (63%) were preferentially managed with both surgical resection and antitubercular therapy (ATT) compared to multifocal tuberculomas that were preferentially managed with ATT. Conclusions: Intracranial tuberculoma is a rare but treatable cause of space-occupying lesions in children. Clinicians should maintain high-level of suspicion in patients from endemic regions and involve infectious disease service early in patient’s care.
There is evidence that child maltreatment is associated with shorter telomere length in early life.
This study aims to examine if child maltreatment is associated with telomere length in middle- and older-age adults.
This was a retrospective cohort study of 141 748 UK Biobank participants aged 37–73 years at recruitment. Leukocyte telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and log-transformed and scaled to have unit standard deviation. Child maltreatment was recalled by participants. Linear regression was used to analyse the association.
After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, participants with three or more types of maltreatment presented with the shortest telomere lengths (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.03; P < 0.0001), followed by those with two types of maltreatment (β = −0.02, 95% CI −0.04 to 0.00; P = 0.02), referent to those who had none. When adjusted for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, the telomere lengths of participants with three or more types of maltreatment were still shorter (β = −0.04, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.02; P = 0.0008). The telomere lengths of those with one type of maltreatment were not significantly different from those who had none. When mutually adjusted, physical abuse (β = −0.05, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.03; P < 0.0001) and sexual abuse (β = −0.02, 95% CI −0.04 to 0.00; P = 0.02) were independently associated with shorter telomere length.
Our findings showed that child maltreatment is associated with shorter telomere length in middle- and older-aged adults, independent of sociodemographic and mental health factors.
An onboard three-dimensional (3D) trajectory generation approach based on the reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm and deep neural network (DNN) is proposed for hypersonic vehicles in glide phase. Multiple trajectory samples are generated offline through the convex optimisation method. The deep learning (DL) is employed to pre-train the DNN for initialising the actor network and accelerating the RL process. Based on the offline deep policy deterministic actor-critic algorithm, a flight target-oriented reward function with path constraints is designed. The actor network is optimised by the end-to-end RL and policy gradients of the critic network until the reward function converges to the maximum. The actor network is considered as the onboard trajectory generator to compute optimal control values online based on the real-time motion states. The simulation results show that the single-step online planning time meets the real-time requirements of onboard trajectory generation. The significant improvement in terminal accuracy of the online trajectory and the better generalisation under biased initial states for hypersonic vehicles in glide phase is observed.
A relation among invariants of filtered velocity gradients with two different filter sizes is derived. Based on this relation and physical reasoning, it is shown analytically that strain self-amplification contributes more to energy transfer than vortex stretching in homogeneous turbulence, as observed in recent numerical investigations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We note that the invariant relation studied and hence the inequality between strain self-amplification and vortex stretching apply to all homogeneous flows, not restricted to isotropic turbulence.
The pulsed jet is a novel and effective active mixing enhancement approach. For the transverse pulsed jet in the supersonic crossflow, the frequency influence is investigated using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model. The averaged flow field properties of the pulsed jet are better than those of the steady jet when considering mixing efficiency and jet penetration depth, especially for the case with the pulsed frequency being 50kHz. The flow field structures of the pulsed jet are connected with the time, with periodic wave structures generating in the flow field and moving downstream. The size of the wave structures and its distance are related to the frequency, namely the size and flow distance are relatively small at 50kHz, and it takes some time for the pulsed jet to establish its influence in the full flow field. At low frequencies, the flow field produces large fluctuations, and this may be detrimental to the stable operation of the engine.
Increasingly diverse caregiver populations have prompted studies examining culture and caregiver outcomes. Still, little is known about the influence of sociocultural factors and how they interact with caregiving context variables to influence psychological health. We explored the role of caregiving and acculturation factors on psychological distress among a diverse sample of adults.
Secondary data analysis of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).
The 2009 CHIS surveyed 47,613 adults representative of the population of California. This study included Latino and Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) caregivers and non-caregivers (n = 13,161).
Multivariate weighted regression analyses examined caregiver status and acculturation variables (generational status, language of interview, and English language proficiency) and their associations with psychological distress (Kessler-6 scale). Covariates included caregiving context (e.g., support and neighborhood factors) and demographic variables.
First generation caregivers had more distress than first-generation non-caregivers (β=0.92, 95% CI: (0.18, 1.65)); the difference in distress between caregivers and non-caregivers was smaller in the third than first generation (β=-1.21, 95% CI: (-2.24, -0.17)). Among those who did not interview in English (β=1.17, 95% CI: (0.13, 2.22)) and with low English proficiency (β=2.60, 95% CI: (1.21, 3.98)), caregivers reported more distress than non-caregivers.
Non-caregivers exhibited the "healthy immigrant effect," where less acculturated individuals reported less distress. In contrast, caregivers who were less acculturated reported more distress.
Acritarch biostratigraphic and δ13C chemostratigraphic data from the Krol A Formation in the Solan area (Lesser Himalaya, northern India) are integrated to aid inter-basinal correlation of early–middle Ediacaran strata. We identified a prominent negative δ13C excursion (likely equivalent to EN2 in the lower Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of South China), over a dozen species of acanthomorphs (including two new species—Cavaspina tiwariae Xiao n. sp., Dictyotidium grazhdankinii Xiao n. sp.), and numerous other microfossils from an interval in the Krol A Formation. Most microfossil taxa from the Krol A and the underlying Infra-Krol formations are also present in the Doushantuo Formation. Infra-Krol acanthomorphs support a correlation with the earliest Doushantuo biozone: the Appendisphaera grandis-Weissiella grandistella-Tianzhushania spinosa Assemblage Zone. Krol A microfossils indicate a correlation with the second or (more likely, when δ13C data are considered) the third biozone in the lower Doushantuo Formation (i.e., the Tanarium tuberosum-Schizofusa zangwenlongii or Tanarium conoideum-Cavaspina basiconica Assemblage Zone). The association of acanthomorphs with EN2 in the Krol Formation fills a critical gap in South China where chert nodules, and thus acanthomorphs, are rare in the EN2 interval. Like many other Ediacaran acanthomorphs assemblages, Krol A and Doushantuo acanthomorphs are distributed in low paleolatitudes, and they may represent a distinct paleobiogeographic province in east Gondwana. The Indian data affirm the stratigraphic significance of acanthomorphs and δ13C, clarify key issues of lower Ediacaran bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation, and strengthen the basis for the study of Ediacaran eukaryote evolution and paleobiogeography.
Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitor unplanned school closure (USC) reports through online systematic searches (OSS) to assist public health emergency responses. We counted the additional reports identified through social media along with OSS to improve USC monitoring.
Facebook and Twitter data of public-school districts and private schools in counties affected by California wildfires in October and December of 2017 and January of 2018 were retrieved. We computed descriptive statistics and performed multivariable logistic regression for both OSS and social media data.
Among the 362 public-school districts in wildfire-affected counties, USCs were identified for 115 (32%) districts, of which OSS identified 104 (90%), Facebook, 59 (52%), and Twitter, 37 (32%). These data correspond to 4622 public schools, among which USCs were identified for 888 (19.2%) schools, of which OSS identified 722 (81.3%), Facebook, 496 (55.9%), and Twitter, 312 (35.1%). Among 1289 private schools, USCs were identified for 104 schools, of which OSS identified 47 (45.2%), Facebook, 67 (64.4%), and Twitter, 29 (27.9%). USC announcements identified via social media, in addition to those via OSS, were 11 public school districts, 166 public schools, and 57 private schools.
Social media complements OSS as additional resources for USC monitoring during disasters.
Background: Phase 3 COMET trial (NCT02782741) compares avalglucosidase alfa (n=51) with alglucosidase alfa (n=49) in treatment-naïve LOPD. Methods: Primary objective: determine avalglucosidase alfa effect on respiratory muscle function. Secondary/other objectives include: avalglucosidase alfa effect on functional endurance, inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength, lower/upper extremity muscle strength, motor function, health-related quality of life, safety. Results: At Week 49, change (LSmean±SE) from baseline in upright forced vital capacity %predicted was greater with avalglucosidase alfa (2.89%±0.88%) versus alglucosidase alfa (0.46%±0.93%)(absolute difference+2.43%). The primary objective, achieving statistical non-inferiority (p=0.0074), was met. Superiority testing was borderline significant (p=0.0626). Week 49 change from baseline in 6-minute walk test was 30.01-meters greater for avalglucosidase alfa (32.21±9.93m) versus alglucosidase alfa (2.19±10.40m). Positive results for avalglucosidase alfa were seen for all secondary/other efficacy endpoints. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) occurred in 86.3% of avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 91.8% of alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. Five participants withdrew, 4 for AEs, all on alglucosidase alfa. Serious AEs occurred in 8 avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 12 alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. IgG antidrug antibody responses were similar in both. High titers and neutralizing antibodies were more common for alglucosidase alfa. Conclusions: Results demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful outcome measures and a more favorable safety profile with avalglucosidase alfa versus alglucosidase alfa. Funding: Sanofi Genzyme
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
This study investigated the characteristics and prognosis of the feeling of ear fullness in patients with unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Our study included 56 patients with a diagnosis of unilateral all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a feeling of ear fullness and 48 patients without a feeling of ear fullness. The condition of these patients was prospectively observed.
Positive correlations were observed between grading of feeling of ear fullness and hearing loss in patients with a feeling of ear fullness (r = 0.599, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the total effective rate of hearing recovery between patients with and without a feeling of ear fullness after one month of treatment (Z = −0.641, p = 0.521). Eighty-six per cent of patients (48 out of 56) showed complete recovery from the feeling of ear fullness. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery (r = 0.040, p = 0.769).
The prognosis of feeling of ear fullness is good. There was no correlation between feeling of ear fullness recovery and hearing recovery for all-frequency sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
Efficient photosynthesis requires a balance of ATP and NADPH production/consumption in chloroplasts, and the exportation of reducing equivalents from chloroplasts is important for balancing stromal ATP/NADPH ratio. Here, we showed that the overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 on the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria can streamline the production and consumption of reducing equivalents in these two organelles, respectively. A higher capacity of consumption of reducing equivalents in mitochondria can indirectly help chloroplasts to balance the ATP/NADPH ratio in stroma and recycle NADP+, the electron acceptors of the linear electron flow (LEF). A higher rate of ATP and NADPH production from the LEF, a higher capacity of carbon fixation by the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle and a greater consumption of NADH in mitochondria enhance photosynthesis in the chloroplasts, ATP production in the mitochondria and sucrose synthesis in the cytosol and eventually boost plant growth and seed yields in the overexpression lines.
Beryl from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province, western China is known for its unusual tabular habit and W–Sn–Be paragenesis in a greisen-type deposit. The crystals are typically colourless transparent to pale blue, often with screw dislocations of hexagonal symmetry on the (0001) crystal faces. Combining electron microprobe analyses and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), correlated with Raman and micro-infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging, the crystal chemical characteristics are determined. The contents of Na+ (0.24–0.38 atoms per formula unit (apfu)) and Li+ up to 0.38 apfu are at the high end compared to beryl from other localities worldwide. Li+ substitution for Be2+ on the tetrahedral (T2) site is predominantly charge balanced by Na+ on the smaller channel (C2) site, with Na+ ranging from 91.5% to 99.7% (apfu) of the sum of all other alkali elements. Cs+ and minor Rb+ and K+ primarily charge balance the minor M2+ substitution for Al3+ at the A site; all iron at the A site is suggested to be trivalent. The a axis ranges from 9.2161(2) to 9.2171(4) Å, with unit-cell volume from 678.03(3) to 678.48(7) Å3. The c/a ratio of 1.0002–1.0005 is characteristic for T2-type beryl with unit-cell parameters controlled primarily by Be2+ substitution. Transmission micro-IR vibrational spectroscopy and imaging identifies coordination of one or two water molecules to Na+ (type IIs and type IId, respectively) as well as alkali free water (type I). Based on IR absorption cross section and XRD a C1 site water content of 0.4–0.5 apfu is derived, i.e. close to 50% site occupancy. Secondary crystal phases with a decrease in Fe and Mg, yet increase in Na, suggest early crystallisation of aquamarine, with goshenite being late. With similar crystal chemistry to beryl of columnar habit from other localities worldwide, the tabular habit of Xuebaoding beryl seems to be unrelated to chemical composition and alkali content.
This work investigated the photophysical pathways for light absorption, charge generation, and charge separation in donor–acceptor nanoparticle blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and indene-C60-bisadduct. Optical modeling combined with steady-state and time-resolved optoelectronic characterization revealed that the nanoparticle blends experience a photocurrent limited to 60% of a bulk solution mixture. This discrepancy resulted from imperfect free charge generation inside the nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and chemically resolved X-ray mapping showed that enhanced miscibility of materials did improve the donor–acceptor blending at the center of the nanoparticles; however, a residual shell of almost pure donor still restricted energy generation from these nanoparticles.
Early life stress has been associated with emotional dysregulations and altered architecture of limbic-prefrontal brain systems engaged in emotional processing. Serotonin regulates both, developmental and experience-dependent neuroplasticity in these circuits. Central serotonergic biosynthesis rates are regulated by Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and transgenic animal models suggest that TPH2-gene associated differences in serotonergic signaling mediate the impact of aversive early life experiences on a phenotype characterized by anxious avoidance.
The present study employed an imaging genetics approach that capitalized on individual differences in a TPH2 polymorphism (703G/T; rs4570625) to determine whether differences in serotonergic signaling modulate the effects of early life stress on brain structure and function and punishment sensitivity in humans (n = 252).
Higher maltreatment exposure before the age of 16 was associated with increased gray matter volumes in a circuitry spanning thalamic-limbic-prefrontal regions and decreased intrinsic communication in limbic-prefrontal circuits selectively in TT carriers. In an independent replication sample, associations between higher early life stress and increased frontal volumes in TT carriers were confirmed. On the phenotype level, the genotype moderated the association between higher early life stress exposure and higher punishment sensitivity. In TT carriers, the association between higher early life stress exposure and punishment sensitivity was critically mediated by increased thalamic-limbic-prefrontal volumes.
The present findings suggest that early life stress shapes the neural organization of the limbic-prefrontal circuits in interaction with individual variations in the TPH2 gene to promote a phenotype characterized by facilitated threat avoidance, thus promoting early adaptation to an adverse environment.
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein TgROP18 is a polymorphic virulence effector that targets immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) in rodents. Given that IRGs are uniquely diversified in rodents and not in other T. gondii intermediate hosts, the role of TgROP18 in manipulating non-rodent cells is unclear. Here we show that in human cells TgROP18I interacts with the interferon-gamma-inducible protein N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) and that this is a property that is unique to the type I TgROP18 allele. Specifically, when expressed ectopically in mammalian cells only TgROP18I co-immunoprecipitates with NMI in IFN-γ-treated cells, while TgROP18II does not. In parasites expressing TgROP18I or TgROP18II, NMI only co-immunoprecipitates with TgROP18I and this is associated with allele-specific immunolocalization of NMI on the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). We also found that TgROP18I reduces NMI association with IFN-γ-activated sequences (GAS) in the IRF1 gene promoter. Finally, we determined that polymorphisms in the C-terminal kinase domain of TgROP18I are required for allele-specific effects on NMI. Together, these data further define new host pathway targeted by TgROP18I and provide the first function driven by allelic differences in the highly polymorphic ROP18 locus.