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Emotion recognition deficits in psychopathology have been extensively studied with a variety of measures. The Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test (BLERT; Bell et al., 1997) is an effective method to assess emotion recognition by presenting affect stimuli which may have greater verisimilitude with real life events. Indeed, BLERT combines facial expressions with affective information transmitted in prosody or body posture. This method has allowed the study of emotion recognition deficit in psychotic patients, as well as its relationships with other aspects of psychopathology (Vohs et al., 2014).
We aimed at testing the validity and reliability of an Italian version of the BLERT.
First, a group-comparison was carried out between clinical and nonclinical participants. Then, correlations among BLERT scores and other indices of psychological functioning were explored.
We recruited 12 inpatients with psychotic disorders (mean age= 54.75; 58.3% female) and 45 nonclinical participants (mean age= 24.04; 75.6% female). We administered the BLERT (Bell et al., 1997), along with the following measures: Empathy Quotient (Lawrence et al., 2004), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-47 (Pilkonis et al., 1996).
Clinical participants resulted impaired in all indices of the BLERT. Further, the construct validity of the BLERT was confirmed by associations with measures of empathy, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems.
The use of the Italian version of the BLERT seemed promising for the study of emotion recognition in both clinical and nonclinical samples.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ∼ 6, MUVT ≳-13.3; for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* ≲ 47 km s−1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.
An experiment was conducted in growth chambers to determine the influence of cold temperature regimes, designed to simulate winter temperature conditions and spring recovery, on the interaction between purple deadnettle and soybean cyst nematode (SCN). The study was a factorial arrangement of treatments with five levels of temperature (20, 15, 10, 5, or 0 C), two levels of exposure time to the temperature (10 or 20 d), and two levels of recovery time at 20 C following exposure (0 or 20 d). In general, purple deadnettle shoot and root growth increased with temperature and time. The ability of purple deadnettle to recover from cold temperatures declined as the length of time that the plant was subjected to the cold temperature increased. SCN juveniles per gram of root at the conclusion of the temperature treatment declined as the temperature increased from 0 to 15 C, likely a result of continued purple deadnettle root growth and the inhibition of SCN hatch, growth, or development at those temperatures. SCN female, cyst, and egg production per gram of root generally increased with temperature and occurred under all temperature regimes. The results of this research indicate that, after hatching, SCN juveniles can survive a period of cold temperature inside the roots of a winter annual and continue development when transferred to warmer temperatures. Therefore, in a field environment, where fall or spring alone may not be sufficient for SCN to complete a reproductive cycle on a winter annual weed, the nematode may be able to reproduce by combining the fall and spring developmental periods.
Aircraft response to atmospheric turbulence is a basic problem in aeronautical design. Several uncertainties still exist about the most adequate mathematical model for it. A recent investigation conducted by AGARD revealed that different users follow very different criteria.
The reasons for this diversity in analysis methods is only partially due to the randomness of the phenomenon. Three elements are the ingredients: structure, aerodynamics and turbulence distribution. No special problems arise from the first element, since structural dynamics and programs relevant to it are well established. For the aerodynamic model, the only choice is between quasi-steady and unsteady formulation, the latter being by far heavier than the former. For turbulence distribution, as is well known(2-4), two different approaches are used, time history and power spectral density (PSD); both are used in the regulations of national certifying agencies. For the latter the turbulence power spectrum must be given, and the aircraft response is evaluated through the classical theory of random vibrations.
To evaluate the haemostatic efficacy and safety of the LigaSure vessel sealing system in major head and neck cancer surgery.
This two-year, prospective study included 34 patients who underwent major head and neck cancer surgery at a university hospital. The LigaSure Precise handpiece and LigaSure 8 vessel sealing system were utilised as the primary means of haemostasis, except when sealing vessels larger than 7 mm in diameter. Surgical outcomes were evaluated. In addition, in each patient the diameter of the largest vein and artery sealed (all were >2 mm) was measured before sealing.
In all cases except one (33/34 patients), a sutureless technique was performed. Post-operative bleeding was observed in two cases. Thirty veins and 22 arteries were measured. The mean diameter of the largest sealed vein was 3.8 mm, while that of the largest sealed artery was 2.7 mm.
Our experience indicates that the surgical technique described is safe and effective. The main advantages of the LigaSure system are that it simplifies the procedure and eliminates the need for clips and suture ligations.
Metallic nanoparticles under 10 nm are of particular interest for the microelectronics industry. However, there is a lack of convenient synthetic routes to control their size Oxophilic metals, such as Ta, are also of high interest, however, the high oxophilicity and melting point makes the synthesis of such nanoparticles challenging. Making use of imidazolium-based ionic liquids, monodisperse zero-valent tantalum nanoparticles (Ta(0)NPs) have been successfully synthesised at room temperature by reduction of tris(neopentyl)neopentylidenetantalum(V). Furthermore; well size-controlled bimetallic Ru-Ta NPs have also been synthesized.
The behaviour of two intertidal chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the western Indian Ocean (Acanthopleura gemmata and A. brevispinosa) and one from the Caribbean Sea (A. granulata) were analyzed in order to assess the spatial and temporal organization of their foraging activity. Individual paths were recorded in the field using a motographic method based on LED-tracking and the speed variation during each excursion used to reveal the places where the animals slowed down or stopped for the purpose of grazing. Foraging segments of each trajectory were selected according to a threshold speed which was individually calibrated. The three species of Acanthopleura exhibited graded foraging strategies of different spatial complexity. Acanthopleura gemmata focused its foraging on a few large feeding sites well separated from its permanent home. Acanthopleura brevispinosa exploited more subdivided feeding grounds not distinctly separated from its rest area. Acanthopleura granulata spreads its grazing activity over many small segments, throughout each excursion. Due to different tidal and diel constraints on their activity the three species allocated different absolute time to foraging, but the fraction of time spent foraging relative to the total excursion was similar in each.
The prosobranch limpet Patella vulgata is an intertidal grazer performing looped excursions centred on a home scar. Foraging within each excursion is mostly concentrated around the point of maximum distance from home. The orientation of the foraging excursions in a group of limpets was analysed on a vertical substrate on a sheltered shore in North Wales. The spatial relationship between different excursions of the same individual was also analysed. A total of 174 complete excursions from 47 adult limpets were obtained using the LED (light emitting diode) tracking technique. In particular, the leaving direction and the direction of the main foraging area of each excursion were computed. When considering the foraging strategy over five consecutive days, a substantially radial cropping pattern was evident at both the population and individual level, with no evident directional preference. However, when considering consecutive excursions of the same individual a concordance in leaving directions was evident in about 40% of cases. The high overlap between the outward branch of the trajectory of one night and the homing branch of the previous one suggests that the directional decision can be based on a trail-following mechanism. Moreover, our data suggest that directional decisions are taken at the beginning of each excursion when leaving home.
Earlier analysis of the Italian population showed patterns of genetic
differentiation that were
interpreted as being the result of population settlements going back to
pre-Roman times. DNA
disease mutations may be a powerful tool in further testing this hypothesis
since the analysis of
diseased individuals can detect variants too rare to be resolved in normal
individuals. We present
data on the relative frequencies of 60 cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations in
Italy and the geographical
distribution of the 12 most frequent CF mutations screened in 3492 CF
chromosomes originating in
13 Italian regions. The 12 most frequent mutations characterize about 73%
of the Italian CF
chromosomes. The most common mutation, ΔF508, has an average frequency
51%, followed by
N1303K and G542X, both with average frequencies around 5%. Multivariate
analyses show that the
relative frequencies of CF mutations are heterogeneous among Italian regions,
and that this
heterogeneity is weakly correlated with the geographical pattern of non-DNA
markers. The northern regions are well differentiated from the central-southern
regions and within
the former group the western and eastern regions are remarkably distinct.
Moreover, Sardinia shows
the presence of mutation T338I, which seems absent in any other European
CF chromosome. The
north-western regions of Italy, characterized by the mutation 1717-1G→A,
under Celtic influence, while the north-east regions, characterized by
mutations R1162X, 2183AA→G and
7115G→A, were under the influence of the Venetic culture.
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