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We use three-dimensional (3-D) fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations to study the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in a simulation of decaying turbulence created by anisotropic counter-propagating low-frequency Alfvén waves consistent with critical-balance theory. We observe the formation of small-scale current-density structures such as current filaments and current sheets as well as the formation of magnetic flux ropes as part of the turbulent cascade. The large magnetic structures present in the simulation domain retain the initial anisotropy while the small-scale structures produced by the turbulent cascade are less anisotropic. To quantify the occurrence of reconnection in our simulation domain, we develop a new set of indicators based on intensity thresholds to identify reconnection events in which both ions and electrons are heated and accelerated in 3-D particle-in-cell simulations. According to the application of these indicators, we identify the occurrence of reconnection events in the simulation domain and analyse one of these events in detail. The event is related to the reconnection of two flux ropes, and the associated ion and electron exhausts exhibit a complex 3-D structure. We study the profiles of plasma and magnetic-field fluctuations recorded along artificial-spacecraft trajectories passing near and through the reconnection region. Our results suggest the presence of particle heating and acceleration related to small-scale reconnection events within magnetic flux ropes produced by the anisotropic Alfvénic turbulent cascade in the solar wind. These events are related to current structures of the order of a few ion inertial lengths in size.
We present the first report of Amblycerus dispar (Sharp) attacking stored almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb] in Argentina. A summarized diagnosis, illustrations, and photographs of the adult and mature larva are provided to facilitate identification. We performed species distribution models for A. dispar and its main host plant Geoffroea decorticans (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Burkart. We include A. dispar into a previous morphological character matrix and conduct a phylogenetic analysis to infer its phylogenetic position. The evolution of host plant associations of the genus Amblycerus is herein re-analyzed. A. dispar and its main host shows high suitability areas especially in central-west Argentina and Chile, whereas for the USA, high suitability areas were found for the south-western which include the area of almond production in this country. Although the presence of A. dispar in the USA region is very unlikely, we recommend some awareness as other bruchines are present in the area. Although A. dispar is unlikely to become an economically important risk, monitoring for early detection is recommended to avoid productivity loss, especially when the native host is nearby cultivated areas. A. dispar is hypothesized to be the sister species of A. schwarzi Kingsolver. The colonization of a Rosaceae species is a novelty for this genus, being host shifts known as an important factor affecting both natural and agricultural systems.
An inflammation-induced imbalance in the kynurenine pathway (KP) has been reported in major depressive disorder but the utility of these metabolites as predictive or therapeutic biomarkers of behavioral activation (BA) therapy is unknown.
Serum samples were provided by 56 depressed individuals before BA therapy and 29 of these individuals also provided samples after 10 weeks of therapy to measure cytokines and KP metabolites. The PROMIS Depression Scale (PROMIS-D) and the Sheehan Disability Scale were administered weekly and the Beck depression inventory was administered pre- and post-therapy. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effect, general linear, and logistic regression models. The primary outcome for the biomarker analyses was the ratio of kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid (KynA/QA).
BA decreased depression and disability scores (p's < 0.001, Cohen's d's > 0.5). KynA/QA significantly increased at post-therapy relative to baseline (p < 0.001, d = 2.2), an effect driven by a decrease in QA post-therapy (p < 0.001, uncorrected, d = 3.39). A trend towards a decrease in the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan (KYN/TRP) was also observed (p = 0.054, uncorrected, d = 0.78). Neither the change in KynA/QA, nor baseline KynA/QA were associated with response to BA therapy.
The current findings together with previous research show that electronconvulsive therapy, escitalopram, and ketamine decrease concentrations of the neurotoxin, QA, raise the possibility that a common therapeutic mechanism underlies diverse forms of anti-depressant treatment but future controlled studies are needed to test this hypothesis.
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a disturbing problem in the health system. A relationship between the use of certain antimicrobials and a resistance increase has been proposed. Since this phenomenon is not usually attributed to specific uses of antimicrobials but preferably to its evolution over the years, the analysis of the antimicrobial consumption over time can justify the epidemiological situation of a given region in terms of resistance and possible increases and decreases for specific microorganisms. The objective of this study was to analyze the evolution of the use of antimicrobials in Catalonia during 2008–2018 through the VINCat program (Infection Control and Antimicrobial Stewardship Catalonian Program). Methods: The number of hospitals participating in the VINCat increased from 46 in 2008 to 63 in 2018 (ie, 68.8% and 85.7% of all adult acute-care hospital beds in Catalonia, respectively). Hospitalization days recorded at the participating hospitals increased from 2,991,053 in 2008 to 3,714,938 in 2018. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) defined daily dose (DDD) index was used for monitoring antimicrobial consumption. Simple linear regressions were performed, the linear relationship was checked by ANOVA tests, and the Pearson correlation (Pc) coefficients were obtained. Values of P ≤ .05 were considered statistically significant. Results: From 2008 to 2018, there was a statistically significant increase of global antibacterial consumption (65.50 vs 71.73 DDD per 100 bed days; P = .001) and antimycotic consumption (3.09 vs 3.45 DDD per 100 bed days, P = .012) due to an increase of consumption in the surgical units. At the same time, there was a decrease in the consumption of antimycotics in the medical units (4.35 vs 3.90 DDD per 100 bed days; P =.029). Cephalosporins and carbapenem consumption increased both globally (10.88 vs 13.86 DDD per 100 bed days; P < .001) and in medical and surgical units (3.26 vs 5.38 DDD per 100 bed days; P < .001). This increase was mainly associated with ceftriaxone (3.45 vs 5.46 DDD per 100 bed days; P < .001) and meropenem (1.12 vs 3.08 DDD per 100 bed days; P < .001). There was a global decrease in the consumption of penicillins (26.10 vs 24.24 DDD per 100 bed days; P = .012) and quinolones (11.63 vs 9.61 DDD per 100 bed days; P = .004). This trend was observed also in ICUs and medical units but not in surgical units, for which only quinolones showed a significant decrease. Decreases in the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate acid (17.80 vs 14.24 DDD per 100 bed days; P < .001) and ciprofloxacin (5.68 vs 4.01 DDD per 100 bed days; P < .001) were observed. Conclusions: The increase in the use of antimicrobials in Catalonia is concerning. This increase is attributable to the use of these drugs in surgical units. Antibiotic stewardship measures should be aimed primarily at these units. The increasing use of carbapenems should be analyzed.
Disclosures: Juan Pablo Horcajada reports consulting fees from MSD, Pfizer, and Menarini as well as speaker honoraria from MSD, Pfizer, and Zambon.
Background: The antibiotic use optimization program (PROA) in Catalonia (Spain) is part of the surveillance program for nosocomial infections in hospitals in Catalonia (VINCat). Despite the existence of guidelines for the treatment of urinary tract infections in hospitals, adherence to them is not guaranteed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy to local guidelines in bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli of urinary source within the PROA-VINCat program during a 3-year period. The impact of a voluntary survey asking for evaluating local results and implementing correction measures was also analyzed. Methods: Multicentric prospective observational study including all episodes of E. coli bacteremia of urinary source between May 2017 and September 2019, in adult hospitalized patients in 45 Catalan hospitals. Adequacy of the empirical therapy to local guidelines was one of the prospectively recorded items. A survey evaluating local results of 2017–2018 and asking for possible correcting measures was sent to the participating centers at the end of 2018. Percentages of adequacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy in 2017, 2018, and 2019 were compared by means of χ2 test. Results: Overall, 3,804 episodes of bacteremia were recorded: 845 in 2017, 1,861 in 2018 and 1,098 until September 30, 2019. Globally, adequacy of empirical therapy to guidelines increased from 73.7% in 2017 to 78.2% in 2019 (P = .06). Interestingly, in the 24 hospitals that responded to the voluntary survey, the adequacy of empirical therapy increased significantly from 72.9% in 2017 to 79.9% in 2019 (P = .009). In hospitals that did not respond, adequacy remained the same over the years (76.7% in 2017, 75.1% in 2019; P = .90). Correction measures applied were: meeting with the antimicrobial stewardship team to evaluate the results (100%), review of local resistance rates (62%), review of local guidelines (58.3%), improving guidelines dissemination (75%), sessions for improving guidelines adherence (58%), and analysis of adherence to guidelines after education (65%). Conclusions: In the empirical treatment of E. coli bacteremia of urinary source, adequacy to local antimicrobial therapy guidelines improved from 2017 to 2019, but only in hospitals answering a voluntary survey regarding correcting measures for improving adequacy. Adherence to antimicrobial stewardship proposals improves indicators at local and regional level.
Disclosures: Juan Pablo Horcajada reports consulting fees from MSD, Pfizer, and Menarini and speaker honoraria from MSD, Pfizer, and Zambon.
Background: Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) is a major infection control challenge. Using whole-genome sequencing, <40% of HA-CDI cases have been estimated to have been acquired from other inpatient cases. Huge regional variations have been described depending on the prevalence of epidemic ribotypes. We hypothesized that, according to the geographical area, variations in HA-CDI rates between hospitals could be attributable either to differences in infection control policies or to antimicrobial consumption. Objectives: To assess the association of HA-MRSA rates (a surrogate marker of infection control policies) and antimicrobial consumption with HA-CDI incidence from 2011 to 2018 in hospitals reporting at the VINCat-program (Infection Control and Antimicrobial Stewardship Catalan Program). Methods: Data on 45 hospitals in Catalonia (with 70.5% of all adult acute-care hospital beds) reporting antimicrobial consumption, HA-MRSA, and HA-CDI new cases to the VINCat-program since 2011 to 2018 were analyzed. To report antimicrobial consumption, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) defined daily dose (DDD) index 2018 was used. Participating hospitals were classified into 3 groups according to size: group 1 (>500 beds), 9 hospitals; group 2 (500–200 beds), 15 hospitals; and group 3 (<200 beds), 21 hospitals. The number of hospitalization days recorded at the participating hospitals increased from 2,828,101 in 2011 to 3,201,680 in 2018. To analyze the association between HA-MRSA rate, antimicrobial consumption and the rate of CDI-HA, a Poisson regression model was used. HA-CDI annually new cases have been defined as a dependent variable, the stays as an offset of the model and the HA-MRSA rates and antimicrobial consumption (measured in DDD) as independent factors. The exponents of model coefficients are equal to incidence rate ratios (IRR). Results: The regression model showed an association of with antimicrobial consumption with HA-CDI (IRR,1.05; 95% CI, 1.03–1.07; P < .001) and a lack of association with HA-MRSA (IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.46–1.48; P = .52). Conclusions: The HA-CDI incidence rate grew annually by 5% for an increase of 1 DDD in annual antibiotic consumption. No association HA-MRSA rates was detected, suggesting that antimicrobial stewardship programs are urgently needed to improve the control of HA-CDI in Catalonia, a geographical area with a low prevalence of epidemic ribotypes.
Disclosures: Juan Pablo Horcajada reports consulting fees from MSD, Pfizer, and Menarini and speaker honoraria from MSD, Pfizer, and Zambon.
Recent botanical explorations in the province of Palawan, Philippines, have resulted in the discovery of two new ginger species, namely Boesenbergia eburnea Docot and Boesenbergia leonardocoi Funak. & Docot, which are described and illustrated here, including information on their distribution, habitat, phenology, ecology and conservation status. Additionally, a key to Boesenbergia species in the Philippines is provided.
The quality of the educational system of a country is not only an indicator of the levels of development and well made, but also to come. Not surprisingly, providing universal schooling is also capable of stimulating the development of children and youth, is a strategic objective of the first magnitude in the more advanced nations.
Our country is no stranger to this concern. It is for this reason that, in a recurrent way, the training of our young people, in particular, the problem of school failure are the subject of public debate.
School failure is considered now a major problem, especially in Spain (20-28%), where rates are above the European average and the OECD countries. The importance of this issue has led, in recent times, the emergence of numerous analyzes and various studies trying to determine the causes and to establish the true extent of the failure and dropout rates in our country.
This paper will describe possible factors for future preventive activities, influencing the increase in the rate of absenteeism / dropout: the appearance of breaking the educational link. Link or union that is fragmented by its components: the institution and the student.
Although psychoactive substances has a long history in recreational settings, research on its composition has focused only on tablets, crystal and powder, even though new formulation for new psychoactive substances are readily available for users.
To describe the presence of psychoactive substances and its characteristics in new formulations which had not previously been found in samples delivered to Energy Control from 2014 to 2015 in Spain.
A total of 8324 samples were analysed from June 2014 to December 2015. Only those samples in gummy formulation were studied (n = 9). Samples were analyzed by energy control, a Spanish harm-reduction NGO that offers analysis of substances to users. Analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
From 9 samples of psychoactive substances in gummy formulation, the analysis detected that 55.5% contained multiple psychoactive substances: 6 samples contained 25N-NBOMe (66.7%), 1 2C-E (11.1%), 1 2C-D (11.1%). Two allylescaline (20%), 1 cocaine (11.1%), 1 THC (11.1%), 1 canabinol (11.1%), 1 ketamine (11.1%), 1 caffeine (11.1%), 1 MDMA (11.1%), 1 N-acetyl-MDMA (11.1%), 1 metoxetamine (11.1%), 1 N-acetyl-MDMA), 1 2C-N (11.1%). The only substance found in active dosage was 25N-NBOMe. Six samples (66.67%) did not contain the substance expected by the consumer.
Incipient presence of gummies as new psychoactive formulation was found. The most prevalent drug was 25N-NBOMe; 66.7% did not contain the substance expected. This may pose a risk for potential harmful effects. All the gummies were known to be drug-carriers when bought. This could represent the presence of new formulations from June 2014 in the Spanish recreational market.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Biogenic minerals are widely studied materials for their particular properties derived from their hierarchical structure, using building blocks with sizes spanning several orders of magnitude. These special features can be assessed with different analytical tools, and it is important to know their capabilities and limitations. In order to determine the hierarchical structure of the shells, the nacre and prismatic layers of two marine animals were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Based on these assessments, we found that the combination of these three techniques is useful to describe each structure level, and to explain some of the unique properties observed in these natural materials.
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
There is still much to learn about pollination ecology in areas of high species diversity, such as the Neotropical region. For example, the role of non-flying mammals in pollination is largely unknown in the Neotropical areas, despite the importance of this group in the pollination of plants in other regions. Here we report evidence for flower visitation by a rodent to Oreocallis grandiflora (Proteaceae) in our study site in the southern Andes of Ecuador. For a period of 241 h, camcorders equipped with infrared lights revealed 22 occurrences of floral visitation by Microryzomys altissimus (Cricetidae) to inflorescences of O. grandiflora. Pollen samples taken from the fur of captured individuals showed that M. altissimus carries pollen of O. grandiflora, indicating a potential pollinator role for the rodent. This is the first record of flower visitation by a rodent in the Neotropical Andes. Pollination interactions between non-flying mammals and Proteaceae have been reported in other southern hemisphere continents. This study underscores the need for more research on pollination interactions in the Neotropics, especially in critical Andean biodiversity hotspots.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study.
The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback).
Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece.
Adults aged 18–79 years (n 1607).
A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003).
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AAv. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson’s correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.