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The adult Papilio demoleus Linnaeus comes in different sizes (80-100 mm) and colours. On the basis of structural colour observation, an experimental and theoretical study on the different colours on Papilio demoleus Linnaeus wings was conducted. The wing scales were investigated from a photonic crystal perspective using scanning electron and optical microscopies and reflectance measurements. In the SEM measurements, the parts studied show nanostructured ridges separated by crossribs (grooves). The scales show several tilted cuticle layers lapped on the ridges, which constitute a grating. The widths of the ridges and crossribs (grooves) in the grating are different. Arrangements and shapes of scales are clearly seen under the optical microscopy. It was deduced that the yellow colour with the highest reflectance of 485 nm and 580 nm could be due to multiple interferences from a highly tilted cuticle arrangement. The layer arrangement in the brown and ash scales is not enough to reflect observable interference light. The study shows an application in fine light elements in the photo-electro devices.
To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year.
A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada.
Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists. Sequence-based typing was performed on strain DNA extracts and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were analyzed.
Following 2 cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis, the hot water system investigation revealed a large proportion of L. pneumophila serogroup 5 positive taps (22/25 in wing A and 5/9 in wing B). High positivity was also detected in the heat exchanger of wing A in water samples (3/3) and swabs from the heat exchanger (4/5). The outbreak genotyping investigation identified the hot water system as the source of infections. Genotyping results revealed that all isolated environmental strains harbored the same related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and sequence-based type.
Two cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis occurred in the year following the installation of a heat exchanger to preheat hospital hot water. No cases were reported previously, although the same L. pneumophila strain was isolated from the hot water system in 1995. The heat exchanger promoted L. pneumophila growth and may have contributed to confirmed clinical cases.
Introduction: Six Canadian provinces recently made bicycle helmet mandatory and subsequent data concerning hospitalization rates after head injuries in cyclists were controversial. Furthermore, there remains an important proportion of participants who don’t wear a helmet in sporting activity. We thus wanted to estimate the impact of helmet use in sport injuries on the risk of hospitalization. Methods: Study participants were patients of all age presenting at the emergency department of the Hôpital de l’Enfant-Jésus du CHU de Québec for a trauma that occurred in a sport in which it’s possible to wear a helmet. Data were collected from information provided by the patient and from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program’ (CHIRPP) database. Descriptive and multivariate analyses have been carried out using these data. We performed binomial logistic regression analyzes to estimate the risk adjusted for potentially confounding variables: age, sex and number of injuries. Results: Most patients included in the study (n=169) were males (69.8%) aged between 10 and 30 years (50.3%). Sports most frequently involved in trauma were cycling (31.4%), downhill skiing (18.3%), snowboarding (14.8%), hockey (11.8%), and skateboarding (5.9%). Overall, 70.4% of patients were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Helmet use in sports was associated with a reduction of 52% of the risk of hospitalization (RR: 0.48 [CI: 95%: 0.25-0.93]) after a trauma. In addition, patients not wearing a helmet had higher proportions of intracranial hemorrhage (10% vs. 1.7%) and skull fracture (8% vs 2.5%). Conclusion: Results suggest that helmet use decreases the risk of hospitalization for trauma sustained in sports in which it’s possible to wear a helmet.
Salmonella is one of the major sources of toxi-infection in humans in France and United
States. The incidence of human salmonellosis has considerably increased over the past
20 years and this can be largely attributed to epidemics of S. enteritidis phage type
4 in poultry in numerous countries. In this article, we formulate and analyse a model
in which the transmission of the disease is determined by contact between hens and
Salmonella in the environment.
Nous dressons un état de l’art sur la dosimétrie des rayonnements par luminescence stimulée optiquement (OSL), développée à l’Institut d’Électronique du Sud (IES). Les propriétés spectrales de notre matériau permettent une détection de la lumière sans utilisation de filtre optique. Il présente une grande dynamique (supérieure à 7 ordres de grandeur), une sensibilité inférieure à 10 µGy et une réponse uniquement fonction de la dose absorbée. Des travaux réalisés au CERN ont montré une limite de saturation de l’ordre de 300 Gy. Deux types de dosimètres ont été développés : (1) un capteur intégré destiné à la réalisation de mesures de dose en ligne ; (2) des films OSL qui permettent la réalisation de contrôles géométriques des faisceaux d’irradiation (protons, électrons, alpha, photons). Nous étudions actuellement l’impact du dopage au bore sur notre matériau OSL dans le but de réaliser des mesures dosimétriques en champ mixte neutron – gamma. En parallèle, afin d’améliorer la reproductibilité et l’homogénéité des dépôts OSL, nous développons une méthodologie par couche mince.
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