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A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Involution old age limit is related to general health, cultural and economic living conditions.
Two stages of old age are currently recognized: early old age (65 to 75 years) and over 75 years - late old age period.
Old age period is the third life cycle period in which aging of the brain and eventual pathological changes with respective organic psychopathological onsets are finalized.
In many countries, number of the population over 65 years of age increases. The same applies for our country.
Term of psychic disorders includes miscellaneous psychic conditions, pathologic in terms of symptom intensity, personality and social behavior changes, and reflects on social life of the ill individual and its family.
Psychiatric syndromes and disorders in older population Rogina divides into two groups:
- disorders of emotional reacting and behavior, without manifestations of other organic brain or physical disorders and
- alternations caused by primary brain pathology, clinically presented as organic brain psycho-syndrome with different intensity and different pathogenesis etymology (cardiovascular, cerebro-vascular, neoplastic, metabolic, etc.)
A combination of physical illness and mental disorder is the most common cause of the first hospitalization in older age.
We are witnessing increased divorce rate, and consequently the need to resolve problems related to child custody. According to some data, every third marriage results in disintegration. The child often becomes an object and tools in resolving this complex issue.
Family environment is a natural environment of a child, one of the crucial factors in process of child's socialization. Basic generator of named socialization is a family atmosphere conditioned by predominant feelings in domestic relations. These relations are realized within the mother-child-father triangle adjoined by other members of the family. The evolution of civilization leads to changes in behavior and concept of human rights.
Divorce proceeding itself is one of the rights of both parents, i.e. adult members. From legal point of view, position of minors is passive, defensive. Therefore, divorce may be presented as exercising divorce rights consumed by adults. The most dramatic conflict in divorce proceeding is so called child custody, used by the parents as figurehead for exercising rights on their child.
During the course of exercising parental rights, there are some parents where we can identify a competence and confrontation of equal rights or conflict of individual parental rights.
An expert being summoned to the court in divorce proceeding, related to issues of child custody is most frequently a psychologist, psychiatrist, social worker by its vocation, and seldom, pedagogue or psychotherapist.
Family, school and society are somewhat similar to the palace- If you take away a stone from its foundation, everything starts to collapse.
Torture is considered as physical or mental harassment, torment, causing pain, injuries and humiliation of an innocent person occurring during the shorter or longer period of time.
Is human emotional behavior based on primary biological mechanism that human inherited not only from close animal predecessors, but also significantly more distant kinds on evolutionary ladder?
Results of researches indicate that aggressiveness is stable pattern of behavior in children and young people. Aggressive behavior of humans decreases over the years, although certain types of personalities preserve stability of aggressive behavior.
Psychological profile of torturer includes diagnostical category of antisocial personality disorder.
Mental consequences resulting from torture are depression, psychosomatic reactions, aggression, state of anxiety. The contribution of victimology is significant, particularly from aspect of “selecting” psychopathological reaction. It is also important whether the torturer is known to be victims or it is a stranger. It is understandable that consequences are much more severe with people who had unfortunate to be tortured by known person.
The most common psychopathological reactions are:
1. Fear lived during the torture.
2. Depressive reaction.
3. Aggression - which may not be demonstrated in adequate manner, may be shifted to other people, which may create interpersonal disputes, before all for the victim and represents one of physical consequences resulting from torture.
Torture prevention is problem of individuals, community and society as whole.
Degradation of authorities in one society leads to moral erosion, and on its part, to torture on all functioning levels.
A structured psychoeducation is a method of treatment of patients and their families with the approved therapeutical effect.
Background and Aims:
In our hospital psychoeducation is a part of early interventions directed to first episodes of psychotic patients (that includes first 5 years of psychosis). Duration of the programme is one year and it has been influenced by simmilar experiences in Great Britain and PORT˘s recommendations (Sshizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team). A specific quality of the programme is collaboration of group psychotherapy approach conducted by group analysts and psychoeducation conducted by cognitive-behavioral therapists. All therapists involved in the programme have been supervised monthly by proffesionals.
The psychoeducation is common for all patients and their family members.
Number of hospitalisations, cognitive, emotional and social functioning, changes of basic beliefs and present symptoms have been estimated during the programme.
The aim of the poster presentation is to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and rehabilitation of patients that participate in the programme together with pharmacotherapy in order to achieve better treatment efficacy. Patient that have been involved in the both psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy are compared to patients treated with drugs only. Questionnaires that measure self-esteem and loneliness have been used.
Results and Conclusions:
Since actual psychoeducation ends at the end of this year, the first results of two first grades are expected at the beginning of 2008.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a valid method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Recent studies regarding rCBF in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) reported heterogeneous results, but were limited with small sample size. Neuroimaging can help us in setting the diagnosis of illness, as well as in following the progress and finding more effective treatment for psychotic disorders.
To compare, baseline alterations of the rCBF using SPECT with psychopathological status in FEP during acute phase.
To investigate the changes of rCBF in patients with FEP during acute phase.
We conducted a study on 40 drug – naïve patients with FEP at acute phase of illness during their hospitalization at Zagreb University hospital centre. The diagnosis was confirmed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. rCBF was measured with SPECT and psychopathological status rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.
Our findings showed moderate to severe parieto-temporal perfusion deficits, mild to moderate parieto-fronto-temporal perfusion deficits or borderline perfusion deficits in all but one patient.
Our results showed alteration in rCBF at the beginning of the illness that indicate a biological market of psychotic disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychosis spectrum disorder has a complex pathoetiology characterised by interacting environmental and genetic vulnerabilities. The present study aims to investigate the role of gene–environment interaction using aggregate scores of genetic (polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ)) and environment liability for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia (ES-SCZ)) across the psychosis continuum.
The sample consisted of 1699 patients, 1753 unaffected siblings, and 1542 healthy comparison participants. The Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R) was administered to analyse scores of total, positive, and negative schizotypy in siblings and healthy comparison participants. The PRS-SCZ was trained using the Psychiatric Genomics Consortiums results and the ES-SCZ was calculated guided by the approach validated in a previous report in the current data set. Regression models were applied to test the independent and joint effects of PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ (adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry using 10 principal components).
Both genetic and environmental vulnerability were associated with case-control status. Furthermore, there was evidence for additive interaction between binary modes of PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ (above 75% of the control distribution) increasing the odds for schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (relative excess risk due to interaction = 6.79, [95% confidential interval (CI) 3.32, 10.26], p < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses using continuous PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ confirmed gene–environment interaction (relative excess risk due to interaction = 1.80 [95% CI 1.01, 3.32], p = 0.004). In siblings and healthy comparison participants, PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ were associated with all SIS-R dimensions and evidence was found for an interaction between PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ on the total (B = 0.006 [95% CI 0.003, 0.009], p < 0.001), positive (B = 0.006 [95% CI, 0.002, 0.009], p = 0.002), and negative (B = 0.006, [95% CI 0.004, 0.009], p < 0.001) schizotypy dimensions.
The interplay between exposome load and schizophrenia genetic liability contributing to psychosis across the spectrum of expression provide further empirical support to the notion of aetiological continuity underlying an extended psychosis phenotype.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) identify contextual factors such as policy that impacted the implementation of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) innovations among 12 Canadian research teams and (2) describe strategies used by the teams to address contextual factors influencing implementation of CBPHC innovations. In primary care settings, consideration of contextual factors when implementing change has been recognized as critically important to success. However, contextual factors are rarely recorded, analyzed or considered when implementing change. The lack of consideration of contextual factors has negative implications not only for successfully implementing primary health care (PHC) innovations, but also for their sustainability and scalability. For this evaluation, data collection was conducted using self-administered questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews with team representatives. We used a combination of directed and conventional content analysis approaches to analyze the questionnaire and interview data. Representatives from all 12 teams completed the questionnaire and 11 teams participated in the interviews; 40 individuals participated in this evaluation. Four themes representing contextual factors that impacted the implementation of CBPHC innovations were identified: (I) diversity of jurisdictions (II) complexity of interactions and collaborations (III) policy, and (IV) the multifaceted nature of PHC. The teams used six strategies to address these contextual factors including: (1) conduct an environmental scan at the beginning (2) maintaining engagement among partners and stakeholders by encouraging open and inclusive communication; (3) contextualizing the innovation for different settings; (4) anticipating and addressing changes, delays, and the need for additional resources; (5) fostering a culture of research and innovation among partners and stakeholders; and (6) ensuring information about the innovation is widely available. Implementing CBPHC innovations across jurisdictions is complex and involves navigating through multiple contextual factors. Awareness of the dynamic nature of context should be considered when implementing innovations.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
Species that belong to the Aphidius eadyi group have been used as biocontrol agents against Acyrthosiphon pisum worldwide. However, despite their extensive use, there are still gaps in our knowledge about their taxonomy and distribution. In this study, we employed an integrative taxonomic approach by combining genetic analyses (mtDNA COI barcoding) with standard morphological analyses and geometric morphometrics of forewing shape. We identified three species within the A. eadyi species group, viz., A. smithi, A. eadyi and A. banksae. Genetic separation of all three species was confirmed, with mean genetic distances between species ranging from 5 to 7.4%. The following morphological characters were determined as the most important for separating species of the A. eadyi group: number and shape of costulae on the anterolateral part of the petiole, shape of the central areola on the propodeum, and shape and venation of the forewings. The differences in wing shape of all three species were statistically significant, but with some overlapping. We identified A. banksae as a widely distributed pea aphid parasitoid, whose known range covers most of the western Palaearctic (from the UK to Israel). Aphidius banksae is diagnosed and redescribed.
We present photometric observations of WD 1145+017 during six nights in early 2017. They exhibited asymmetric transits with durations of 10–50 mins and depths up to 50% in flux. We managed to track two deep features that drift in phase during 2.5-month season. This effect may be explained by period decreasing of the transiting formations due to their slow spiralling to the white dwarf. One of them seems to fragment in several smaller parts within a month. The structures causing the two deep transits have elongated shape whose sizes perpendicular and along the orbit are of the order of 1 R⊕ and 100 R⊕. They are parts of geometrically thin inhomogeneous disk (ring) around the white dwarf that is well within its Roche radius. This explains the observed dip activity of WD 1145+017 during the year 2017.
In order to compare estimates by one assessment scale across various cultures/ethnic groups, an important aspect that needs to be demonstrated is that its construct across these groups is invariant when measured using a similar and simultaneous approach (i.e., demonstrated cross-cultural measurement invariance). One of the methods for evaluating measurement invariance is testing for differential item functioning (DIF), which assesses whether different groups respond differently to particular items. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) in societies with different socioeconomic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.
The study was organised by the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Self-reported data were collected from adolescents residing in 11 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Indonesia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestinian Territories, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania and Serbia. The multiple-indicators multiple-causes model was used to test the RCADS items for DIF across the countries.
Ten items exhibited DIF considering all cross-country comparisons. Only one or two items were flagged with DIF in the head-to-head comparisons, while there were three to five items flagged with DIF, when one country was compared with the others. Even with all cross-culturally non-invariant items removed from nine language versions tested, the original factor model representing six anxiety and depressive symptoms subscales was not significantly violated.
There is clear evidence that relatively small number of the RCADS items is non-invariant, especially when comparing two different cultural/ethnic groups, which indicates on its sound cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparisons in adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.
In experiments with neutral beam injection at the early stage of a Globus-M discharge, instabilities were observed that were excited by fast ions in the frequency range of 50–200 kHz, which were identified as toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) (Petrov et al., Plasma Phys. Rep., vol. 37, 2011, pp. 1001–1005). In contradiction with the NSTX and MAST tokamaks, a regime of TAE generation was realized with strongly developed single modes. Magnetic measurements with fast Mirnov probes have shown that most of the modes have toroidal number $n=1$. The influence of the modes on the fast particle confinement was recorded by means of a tangentially directed neutral particle analyser (NPA) and neutron detector. Hydrogen and deuterium were used as target plasma and injected beam for study of the isotopic effect. At deuterium injection into the deuterium plasma, TAE led to the neutron rate dropping by 25 %, whereas NPA fluxes of high energy dropped by 75 %. At hydrogen injection, the drop in the measured NPA fluxes did not exceed 25 %.
Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by subjective and objective memory impairments in the absence of manifest functional decline. Mild changes in activities of daily living (ADL) can be present and probably predict conversion to dementia. A new advanced (a)-ADL tool was developed, evaluating high-level activities and, taking each participant as their own reference, distinguishing a global Disability Index (a-ADL-DI), a Cognitive Disability Index (a-ADL-CDI), and a Physical Disability Index (a-ADL-PDI), based on the number of activities performed and the severity and causes of the functional problem. This study evaluates the discriminative validity of the a-ADL in MCI.
Based upon clinical evaluation and a set of global, cognitive, mood, and functional assessments, 150 community-dwelling participants (average age 80.3 years (SD 5; 66–91)) were included and diagnosed as (1) cognitively healthy participants (n = 50); (2) patients with a-MCI (n = 48), or (3) mild to moderate AD (n = 52). The a-ADL tool was not a part of the clinical evaluation.
The a-ADL-DI and the a-ADL-CDI showed a sensitivity and specificity ranging from 70% to 94.2%, Positive Predictive Value ranging from 70% till 93.8%, and Negative Predictive Value from 64.4% and 93.8%, an area under the curve (AUC) ranging from 0.791 to 0.960. Functional decline related to physical deficits, as assessed by the a-ADL-PDI, did not discriminate between the different groups.
The a-ADL tool has a good ability to distinguish normal and pathological cognitive aging. Its discriminative power for underlying causes of limitations may be an advantage.
We have identified the following three taxa related to the Aphidius colemani species group, which are important biological control agents: Aphidius colemani, Aphidius transcaspicus and Aphidius platensis. Using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene and geometric morphometric analysis of the forewing shape, we have explored the genetic structure and morphological variability of the A. colemani group from different aphid host/plant associations covering a wide distribution area. The topology of the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood trees were identical with 98–100% bootstrap support, clustering A. colemani, A. platensis and A. transcaspicus into separate species. The distances among the taxa ranged from 2.2 to 4.7%, which is a common rate for the between-species divergence within the subfamily Aphidiinae. Differences in the shape of the forewing investigated within the biotypes of A. colemani group are congruent with their genetic diversification. Both A. platensis and A. colemani share a common host range pattern, and it would be interesting to estimate and compare the role of these two species in future biological control strategies against aphids of economic importance. Our results indicate that ‘genetic screening’ is a reliable approach for identification within the A. colemani group. The high variation in the wing shape among species, including a significant divergence in the wing shape among specimens that emerged from different hosts, makes the forewing shape and wing venation less reliable for species determination. Aphidius platensis is diagnostified and redescribed, and the key for the A. colemani group is presented.