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Quantitative plant biology is an interdisciplinary field that builds on a long history of biomathematics and biophysics. Today, thanks to high spatiotemporal resolution tools and computational modelling, it sets a new standard in plant science. Acquired data, whether molecular, geometric or mechanical, are quantified, statistically assessed and integrated at multiple scales and across fields. They feed testable predictions that, in turn, guide further experimental tests. Quantitative features such as variability, noise, robustness, delays or feedback loops are included to account for the inner dynamics of plants and their interactions with the environment. Here, we present the main features of this ongoing revolution, through new questions around signalling networks, tissue topology, shape plasticity, biomechanics, bioenergetics, ecology and engineering. In the end, quantitative plant biology allows us to question and better understand our interactions with plants. In turn, this field opens the door to transdisciplinary projects with the society, notably through citizen science.
Biospecimen repositories play a vital role in enabling investigation of biologic mechanisms, identification of disease-related biomarkers, advances in diagnostic assays, recognition of microbial evolution, and characterization of new therapeutic targets for intervention. They rely on the complex integration of scientific need, regulatory oversight, quality control in collection, processing and tracking, and linkage to robust phenotype information. The COVID-19 pandemic amplified many of these considerations and illuminated new challenges, all while academic health centers were trying to adapt to unprecedented clinical demands and heightened research constraints not witnessed in over 100 years. The outbreak demanded rapid understanding of SARS-CoV-2 to develop diagnostics and therapeutics, prompting the immediate need for access to high quality, well-characterized COVID-19-associated biospecimens. We surveyed 60 Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) hubs to better understand the strategies and barriers encountered in biobanking before and in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Feedback revealed a major shift in biorepository model, specimen-acquisition and consent process from a combination of investigator-initiated and institutional protocols to an enterprise-serving strategy. CTSA hubs were well equipped to leverage established capacities and expertise to quickly respond to the scientific needs of this crisis through support of institutional approaches in biorepository management.
Mme L., 90 ans, était traitée en 3e intention par rispéridone 0,5 mg puis 1 mg durant 7 jours dans le cadre d’un trouble anxieux généralisé décompensé avec agitation. Une rhabdomyolyse et une cytolyse hépatique ont été découvertes fortuitement, associées à des signes cliniques de syndrome malin des neuroleptiques (SMNL) débutant. Les anomalies cliniques et paracliniques ont été résolutives 7 jours après l’arrêt de la rispéridone.
Nous avons réalisé une revue de la littérature sur le SMNL chez le sujet âgé de plus de 65 ans dans la base de données gratuite de Pubmed entre 1985 et 2014.
Parmi les patients retrouvés, la majorité étaient des hommes âgés de plus de 80 ans. Les pathologies traitées étaient représentées pour moitié par des pathologies neurodégénératives. Les différentes classes d’antipsychotiques étaient représentées, avec notamment : halopéridol, dropéridol, chlorpromazine, trifluopérazine, méthotrimeprazine, loxapine, sulpiride ainsi que risperidone et olanzapine. L’augmentation récente des doses semblait être un facteur favorisant. Les délais d’apparition étaient immédiat (< 48 h), précoce (2 à 15 jours), ou tardif (> 15 jours) dans la plupart des cas. Les signes cardinaux du SMNL étaient présents dans la plupart des cas, associés à une augmentation systématique des CPK. On note 50 % de mortalité.
La spécificité chez le sujet âgé semble être une mortalité plus élevée qu’en population générale. Les facteurs de risque tels les pathologies neurodégénératives sont analysés. Les auteurs interrogent le rapport bénéfice/risque de la prescription des antipsychotiques chez la personne âgée.
Depuis près d’un demi-siècle, un grand nombre d’études scientifiques ont permis d’approfondir les connaissances sur les liens existant entre anomalies de la concentration des hormones thyroïdiennes et les maladies psychiatriques. Aujourd’hui, il est démontré chez l’animal que l’administration de tri-iodothyronine (T3) augmente les taux cérébraux de sérotonine et qu’un état d’hypothyroïdie est associé à une diminution de la synthèse sérotoninergique. Chez l’Homme, il existe des preuves indirectes qu’une hypothyroïdie entraîne une hyposérotoninergie cérébrale, corrigée par traitement hormonal substitutif avec amélioration clinique. L’Agence américaine de psychiatrie recommande l’administration de la T3 en traitement adjuvant aux antidépresseurs comme alternative dans la dépression résistante. À travers une revue de littérature utilisant les bases de données Pubmed/Medline et Cochrane, nous faisons le point sur les travaux ayant étudié l’intérêt de l’administration de la T3, d’une part, en co-introduction avec un inhibiteur sélectif de la recapture de la sérotonine (ISRS) ou un tricyclique en traitement de première ligne d’une dépression unipolaire ; d’autre part, en adjonction secondaire à un ISRS ou à un tricyclique dans la dépression résistante. les résultats suggèrent une efficacité de l’administration de la T3 dans le traitement de première ligne en association aux tricycliques et dans le traitement de deuxième ligne en association à la fois aux tricycliques ou aux ISRS. L’efficacité n’a pas été démontrée pour l’association de première ligne T3 + ISRS. Le nombre d’études à haut niveau de preuve reste cependant très faible, avec notamment aucune étude en double aveugle étudiant l’adjonction de la T3 aux ISRS en traitement de deuxième ligne.
Le nombre de lits consacrés à l’hospitalisation à domicile (HAD) est en constante évolution ces dernières années. L’HAD en psychiatrie a pour mission de préparer, raccourcir, prendre le relais, éviter ou remplacer l’hospitalisation classique. Il n’existe, à notre connaissance, pas de données centralisées concernant les différents services d’HAD psychiatrique en France. Notre communication présente les résultats d’une enquête téléphonique, réalisée à partir du service d’HAD psychiatrique du centre hospitalier de Montauban (82). Elle décrit les principaux indicateurs de fonctionnement des différents HAD psychiatriques, contactées, présentes sur le territoire national en 2015. Les indicateurs étudiés sont : l’année de création de la structure, le nombre de place d’hospitalisation, la durée moyenne de séjour, les pathologies principales, la file active moyenne, les critères d’exclusion, la procédure d’activation, la composition des équipes, la couverture horaire et le rayon d’action géographique. Les résultats sont analysés à la recherche de facteurs d’homogénéité ou de disparité.
The ALMA-ALPINE [CII] survey (A2C2S) aims at characterizing the properties of normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) observed in the [CII]-158μm line in the period of rapid mass assembly at redshifts 4 < z < 6. Here we present the survey and the selection of 118 galaxies observed with ALMA, selected from large samples of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts derived from UV-rest frame. The observed properties derived from the ALMA data are presented and discussed in terms of the overall detection rate in [CII] and far-IR continuum. The sample is representative of the SFG population at these redshifts. The overall detection rate is 61% down to a flux limit of 0.07 mJy. From a visual inspection of the [CII] data cubes together with the large wealth of ancillary data we find a surprisingly wide range of galaxy types, including 32.4% mergers, 25.7% extended and dispersion dominated, 13.5% rotating discs, and 16.2% compact, the remaining being too faint to be classified. ALPINE sets a reference sample for the gas distribution in normal star-forming galaxies at a key epoch in galaxy assembly, ideally suited for studies with future facilities like JWST and ELTs.
Introduction: Low acuity patients have been controversially tagged as a source of emergency department (ED) misuse. Authorities for many Canadian health regions have set up policies so these patients preferably present to walk-in clinics (WIC). We compared the cost and quality of the care given to low acuity patients in an academic ED and a WIC of Québec City during fiscal year 2015-16. Methods: We conducted an ambidirectional (prospective and retrospective) cohort study using a time-driven activity-based costing method. This method uses duration of care processes (e.g., triage) to allocate to patient care all direct costs (e.g., personnel, consumables), overheads (e.g., building maintenance) and physician charges. We included consecutive adult patients, ambulatory at all time and discharged from the ED or WIC with a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), urinary tract infection (UTI) or low back pain. Mean cost [95%CI] per patient per condition was compared between settings after risk-adjustment for age, sex, vital signs, number of regular medications and co-morbidities using generalized log-gamma regression models. Proportions [95%CI] of antibiotic prescription and chest X-Ray use in URTI, compliance with provincial guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI, and column X-Ray use in low back pain were compared between settings using a Pearson Chi-Square test. Results: A total of 409 patients were included. ED and WIC groups were similar in terms of age, sex and vital signs on presentation, but ED patients had a greater burden of comorbidities. Adjusted mean cost (2016 CAN$) of care was significantly higher in the ED than in the WIC (p < 0.0001) for URTI (78.42[64.85-94.82] vs. 59.43[50.43-70.06]), UTI (78.88[69.53-89.48] vs. 53.29[43.68-65.03]), and low back pain (87.97[68.30-113.32] vs. 61.71[47.90-79.51]). For URTI, antibiotics were more frequently prescribed in the WIC (44.1%[34.3-54.3] vs. 5.8%[1.2-16.0]; p < 0.0001) and chest X-Rays, more frequently used in the ED (26.9%[15.6-41.0] vs. 13.7%[7.7-22.0]; p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the compliance with guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI and in the use of column X-Ray in low back pain. Conclusion: Total cost of care for low acuity patients is lower in walk-in clinics than in EDs. However, our results suggest that quality-of-care issues should be considered in determining the best alternate setting for treating ambulatory emergency patients.
The primary objectives of the ExoplANETS-A project are to: establish new knowledge on exoplanet atmospheres; establish new insight on influence of the host star on the planet atmosphere; disseminate knowledge, using online, web-based platforms. The project, funded under the EU’s Horizon-2020 programme, started in January 2018 and has a duration ∼3 years. We present an overview of the project, the activities concerning the host stars and some early results on the host stars.
In this paper, we consider the asymptotic behaviour of solitons and double layers. By using the Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, a Taylor series expansion is used to derive the asymptotic behaviour. For solitons and supersolitons that propagate faster than the acoustic speed, an exponential decay rate is derived. In contrast, for acoustic speed solitons and supersolitons, we show that the decay rate is algebraic, resulting in much fatter tails. These results can be extended to double layers. However, the double layer velocity affects only one side of the tail. The other side of the tail is affected by the multiplicity of the double layer root. All the results are illustrated by means of a case study.
Supercritical plasma compositions in parameter space are considered for a general fluid model consisting of an arbitrary number of species. This is done by applying a Taylor series expansion of the Sagdeev potential about the acoustic speed and the equilibrium electrostatic potential. A novel finding in this study is the description of small-amplitude supersolitons. Our analysis allows us to determine the plasma compositional criteria for such structures, as well as lower and upper bounds of their velocities and amplitudes. We therefore establish an interesting link between supercritical plasma compositions and the existence of supersolitons. The results are illustrated via a case study where plasmas consisting of cold ions and two Boltzmann electron species are considered.
The current chapter discusses the contributions included in this volume, focusing on four key aspects of the author’s relevant ethnographic research in Africa: ‘connectivity’, ‘mobility’, ‘community’ and ‘utility’.
The properties of small-amplitude solitons are established near critical plasma compositions in a generalized fluid plasma with an arbitrary number of species. The study is conducted via a Taylor series expansion of the Sagdeev potential. It is shown that there are two types of critical compositions, namely rich critical and poor critical compositions. The coexistence of positive and negative polarity solitons is shown to arise at rich critical compositions and near rich critical compositions. At poor critical compositions, no small-amplitude solitons exist, while weak double layers arise near poor critical compositions. A novel analytical expression is obtained for a small-amplitude acoustic speed soliton solution near rich critical compositions. These solitons have a Lorentzian shape with much fatter tails than regular solitons. A case study is also performed for a simple fluid model consisting of cold ions and two Boltzmann electron species. Exact agreement is obtained between the Sagdeev analysis and reductive perturbation theory. For the first time, we derive the same Lorentzian acoustic speed soliton from reductive perturbation theory.
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widely used endocrine-disrupting chemical. Prenatal exposure to BPA is known to affect birth weight, but its impact on the cardiovascular system has not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal BPA treatment and its interaction with postnatal overfeeding on the cardiovascular system. Pregnant sheep were given daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil (control) or BPA (0.5 mg/kg/day in corn oil) from day 30 to day 90 of gestation. A subset of female offspring of these dams were overfed to increase body weight to ~30% over that of normal fed controls. Cardiovascular function was assessed using non-invasive echocardiography and cuff blood pressure (BP) monitoring at 21 months of age. Ventricular tissue was analyzed for gene expression of cardiac markers of hypertrophy and collagen at the end of the observation period. Prenatal BPA exposure had no significant effect on BP or morphometric measures. However, it increased atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression in the ventricles and reduced collagen expression in the right ventricle. Overfeeding produced a marked increase in body weight and BP. There were compensatory increases in left ventricular area and internal diameter. Prenatal BPA treatment produced a significant increase in interventricular septal thickness when animals were overfed. However, it appeared to block the increase in BP and left ventricular area caused by overfeeding. Taken together, these results suggest that prenatal BPA produces intrinsic changes in the heart that are capable of modulating morphological and functional parameters when animals become obese in later life.
This paper is a charge against ethnoarchaeology. Deliberately provocative, it aims at highlighting the flaws and ideological pitfalls of a sub-discipline whose actual contribution to archaeology remains hardly decipherable. Beside a methodological deficiency and the frequent narrow-mindedness of the research agenda, ethnoarchaeology suffers from two major problems. First, it carries implicitly an old evolutionary – and racist – ideology that divides the world between modern Western societies (inappropriate for ethnoarchaeological research) and premodern exotic societies (well fitted for ethnoarchaeological research). Second, the quest for universal models of interpretation leads ethnoarchaeologists to play down historical contingency and cultural specificities, which not only deprive them of a good understanding of the ethnographical contexts, but also contribute to restricting ethnoarchaeological applications to a mere quest for similarities (or dissimilarities) in the material record. The problems are too profound to justify an umpteenth salvage of the sub-discipline. Rather, the proposition is to get rid of ethnoarchaeology once and for all, and join forces with other, more serious, disciplines.
Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with a decline in physical activity. Typically this is assessed by self-report questionnaires and, more recently, with actigraphy. We sought to explore the utility of a bespoke activity monitor to characterize activity profiles in LLD more precisely.
The activity monitor was worn for 7 days by 29 adults with LLD and 30 healthy controls. Subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment and quality of life (QoL) (36-item Short-Form Health Survey) and activities of daily living (ADL) scales (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale) were administered.
Physical activity was significantly reduced in LLD compared with controls (t = 3.63, p < 0.001), primarily in the morning. LLD subjects showed slower fine motor movements (t = 3.49, p < 0.001). In LLD patients, activity reductions were related to reduced ADL (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), lower QoL (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), associative learning (r = 0.40, p = 0.036), and higher Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score (r = −0.37, p < 0.05).
Patients with LLD had a significant reduction in general physical activity compared with healthy controls. Assessment of specific activity parameters further revealed the correlates of impairments associated with LLD. Our study suggests that novel wearable technology has the potential to provide an objective way of monitoring real-world function.
The supercritical composition of a plasma model with cold positive ions in the presence of a two-temperature electron population is investigated, initially by a reductive perturbation approach, under the combined requirements that there be neither quadratic nor cubic nonlinearities in the evolution equation. This leads to a unique choice for the set of compositional parameters and a modified Korteweg–de Vries equation (mKdV) with a quartic nonlinear term. The conclusions about its one-soliton solution and integrability will also be valid for more complicated plasma compositions. Only three polynomial conservation laws can be obtained. The mKdV equation with quartic nonlinearity is not completely integrable, thus precluding the existence of multi-soliton solutions. Next, the full Sagdeev pseudopotential method has been applied and this allows for a detailed comparison with the reductive perturbation results. This comparison shows that the mKdV solitons have slightly larger amplitudes and widths than those obtained from the more complete Sagdeev solution and that only slightly superacoustic mKdV solitons have acceptable amplitudes and widths, in the light of the full solutions.