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To achieve their conservation goals individuals, communities and organizations need to acquire a diversity of skills, knowledge and information (i.e. capacity). Despite current efforts to build and maintain appropriate levels of conservation capacity, it has been recognized that there will need to be a significant scaling-up of these activities in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the rapid increase in the number and extent of environmental problems in the region. We present a range of socio-economic contexts relevant to four key areas of African conservation capacity building: protected area management, community engagement, effective leadership, and professional e-learning. Under these core themes, 39 specific recommendations are presented. These were derived from multi-stakeholder workshop discussions at an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2015. At the meeting 185 delegates (practitioners, scientists, community groups and government agencies) represented 105 organizations from 24 African nations and eight non-African nations. The 39 recommendations constituted six broad types of suggested action: (1) the development of new methods, (2) the provision of capacity building resources (e.g. information or data), (3) the communication of ideas or examples of successful initiatives, (4) the implementation of new research or gap analyses, (5) the establishment of new structures within and between organizations, and (6) the development of new partnerships. A number of cross-cutting issues also emerged from the discussions: the need for a greater sense of urgency in developing capacity building activities; the need to develop novel capacity building methodologies; and the need to move away from one-size-fits-all approaches.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
We analysed the Spitzer maps of Stephan's Quintet in order to investigate the nature of the dust emission associated with the X-ray emitting regions of the large scale intergalactic shock and of the group halo. This emission can in principle be powered by dust-gas particle collisions, thus providing efficient cooling of the hot gas. However the results of our analysis suggest that the dust emission from those regions is mostly powered by photons. Nonetheless dust collisional heating could be important in determining the cooling of the IGM gas and the large scale star formation morphology observed in SQ.
The paper is concerned with formulation of the gas dynamic conservation equations for the individual species in a non-equilibrium partially ionized gas mixture. As an example, the conservation equations for the electrons and the overall conservation equations are developed for a three component plasma consisting of electrons, singly-ionized positive ions and neutral atoms. Non-elastic collisions are represented by the collisional-radiative decay mechanism of Bates, Kingston & McWhirter (1962a, b). Maxwellian velocity distributions are assumed, but the electrons are allowed to have a temperature different from the heavier particles and to drift relative to them. Particular attention is given to the electron energy balance equation which differs from that used by other investigators.
We have been conducting multi-color observations of a sample of classical ring galaxies with the aim of using them to study the formation and evolution of massive stars. We compare theoretical predictions for the expected color of the material inside the rings assuming that massive stars are created in the wake of the expanding wave. We present ground based data for VIIZw466 and HST data for IIZw28 and the Cartwheel which show strong color gradients.
The use of diathermy to achieve haemostasis after tonsillectomy remains controversial. We have reviewed the English language literature, and found no convincing evidence that diathermy is any more likely to cause post-operative haemorrhage than the use of ligatures. The results of a prospective, randomized study of 1036 consecutive tonsillectomies are presented. No significant difference was found in post-operative haemorrhage rates when either diathermy or ligatures were used. Diathermy was found to reduce operating time compared to ligatures. The possibilities for day-case tonsillectomy are discussed.
Colliding ring galaxies provide a remarkable testbed for the study of star formation in perturbed galaxies. In the process of passing through a disk system, a small perturbing galaxy generates a density wave of stars and gas which expands into the host disk. This triggers a wave of star formation. As the star forming wave passes through the host galaxy, progressively older burst populations may be found interior to the ring. As part of a multiwavelength study of ring galaxies, we have performed optical and infrared imaging using the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope. These images are used to explore the relation between stellar density wave amplitude and star formation rate. Color gradients are searched for which would indicate the presence of an aging burst population interior to the ring.
The existence of a massive dark component to the matter distribution of galaxies (the ‘missing mass’) is inferred from the now overwhelming evidence for flat rotation curves in galaxies. However observational data on the linear extent of such a dark component and its total mass contribution is usually restricted by the limited radial distance to which rotation curves of individual galaxies can be measured (typically < 100 kpc). The magnitude of the mass contained within a larger radius around a galaxy can in principal be inferred by studying the kinematics of small groups of galaxies and making assumptions about their dynamical stability (see Faber and Gallagher, 1979, for review). However, one of the major difficulties in such studies is the question of group membership. The inclusion of disrelated foreground or background galaxies into a dynamical calculation of mass obtained for example via the Virial Theorem, can lead to spurious results. The effects of varying membership criteria on the dynamical properties of groups is well illustrated by the work of Huchra and Geller (1982).
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