To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
One commonly used method of managing confiscated wild primates in Latin American countries is to release rehabilitated individuals back to their natural habitats. However, little information has been collected from confiscated animal releases, so no clear guidelines have been developed to measure the success of this type of procedure. In most countries, the collection of critical post-release data is too costly and time-consuming for it to be incorporated into the routine procedures of institutions managing confiscated fauna. Therefore, this project was carried out in conditions similar to those of other Colombian and Latin American rehabilitation centres. A group of eight confiscated and rehabilitated brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was released in Los Llanos Orientales in Colombia, and monitored for 6.5 months to determine their adaptation and survival after release. Results were analysed according to how the animals adapted to their new environment in terms of foraging, feeding, locomotion, sleeping, social interactions between the group and with other animals and species, prédation, orientation, and establishment of a territory. The results show that the short-term adaptation and survival of the group 6.5 months after release was successful. Five of the eight animals remained together, two separated, and only one was lost during the first month. Implications for animal well-being are discussed.
The death rate due to suicide in elderly people is particularly high. As part of suicide selective prevention measures for at-risk populations, the WHO recommends training “gatekeepers”.
In order to assess the impact of gatekeeper training for members of staff, we carried out a controlled quasi-experimental study over the course of one year, comparing 12 nursing homes where at least 30% of the staff had undergone gatekeeper training with 12 nursing homes without trained staff. We collected data about the residents considered to be suicidal, their management further to being identified, as well as measures taken at nursing home level to prevent suicide.
The two nursing home groups did not present significantly different characteristics. In the nursing homes with trained staff, the staff were deemed to be better prepared to approach suicidal individuals. The detection of suicidal residents relied more on the whole staff and less on the psychologist alone when compared to nursing homes without trained staff. A significantly larger number of measures were taken to manage suicidal residents in the trained nursing homes. Suicidal residents were more frequently referred to the psychologist. Trained nursing homes put in place significantly more suicide prevention measures at an institutional level.
Having trained gatekeepers has an impact not only for the trained individuals but also for the whole institution where they work, both in terms of managing suicidal residents and routine suicide prevention measures.
Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection
The control of Anastrepha obliqua includes the sterilization of mass-reared insects grown in isolation in a constantly controlled environment. Through time, laboratory mass-reared colonies may produce flies with lower field performance. To recover the genetic variation and aptitude of mass-reared populations, wild insects are introduced into mass-reared colonies. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the host species from two localities influence the life history traits of A. obliqua. We collected flies as larvae from infested fruits of Spondias purpurea, S. mombin, Mangifera indica cv. ‘piña’, and M. indica cv. ‘coche’ from two localities in Chiapas, Mexico. There were significant differences in the mating competitiveness of males collected from mango cv. ‘coche’ compared with mass-reared males. There were no differences in the mating propensity between flies from the two localities, even in the number of matings, when weight was considered as a covariable. The mass-reared strain showed the earliest age at first oviposition. The locality affected the longevity and oviposition period, and these influenced the birth rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of population increase, mean generation time, and doubling time. According to the demographic parameters, the population of S. mombin would allow artificial colonization in less time, considering that it has a high reproduction rate starting at an early age. Even in the propensity test, it had the highest number of matings. However, males with greater sexual competitiveness and longevity for colonization corresponded to those collected from S. purpurea.
The use of multiple species in biological control programmes is controversial when interactions among them are not fully understood. We determined the response of the pupal parasitoid Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) to different availability of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) pupae previously parasitized or not by larval–pupal Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead). The two types of pupae were exposed at different ages and proportions to different numbers of C. haywardi females for 48 h. The performance of C. haywardi adults emerging from parasitized and unparasitized pupae was measured. Coptera haywardi prefers to attack unparasitized A. ludens pupae rather than pupae parasitized by D. longicaudata. However, when the availability of unparasitized pupae was low or the number of foraging females was high, C. haywardi competed against early immature stages of the D. longicaudata, or hyperparasitized, feeding directly on the advanced-immature developmental stages of the early acting species. Adults of C. haywardi emerging as hyperparasitoids were no different in size, fecundity and longevity from those emerging as primary parasitoids. Our data suggest that simultaneous use of these species in augmentative biological control projects may be feasible but should be carefully planned in order to avoid any detrimental effect of its interaction.
Imazapyr and imazamox are frequently applied postemergence to control grass and broadleaf weeds in imidazolinone-resistant sunflower in Argentina. Herbicide carryover to rotational crops represents a disadvantage of these herbicides, particularly in regions with low rainfall during the months prior to rotational crop sowing. Between 2009 and 2012, field and greenhouse studies were conducted on four important sunflower-cropped areas of Argentina. The objective was to quantify the effects of imazapyr alone and imazamox plus imazapyr applied in sunflower crops on the subsequent establishment, growth, and yield of barley, oat, and wheat. In all field experiments, imazapyr alone and imazamox plus imazapyr were applied at recommended rates (80 gha–1 and 66 plus 30 gha–1, respectively), and also, in some experiments, at double the recommended rates. Soil bioassays were also conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of these herbicides on barley, oat, and wheat seedlings. The mixture of imazamox plus imazapyr was safer for rotational crops than imazapyr applied alone, because of the reduced rate of imazapyr in the mixture treatments. Barley was more sensitive to imidazolinones, particularly imazapyr, than the other winter cereals. Imazapyr at double rate (160 gha–1) reduced barley yield by 45% when seeds were sown 165 d after herbicide application and with 240 mm rainfall after herbicide application.
Safflower is a traditional oilseed crop in the world. Its seed oil is a healthy edible oil containing high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Genetically diverse exotic cultivars are valuable germplasm for introducing new diversity in safflower improvement programmes. In this study, we characterized safflower cultivars of India (30) and Mexico (23) comprising varieties, hybrids and advanced lines developed over 50 years for genetic distinctiveness using 38 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Genetic diversity estimates across cultivar groups (total, India and Mexico) were as follows: mean number of alleles (3.2, 3.1, 2.6), expected heterozygosity (0.42, 0.37, 0.37) and polymorphism information content (0.36, 0.33, 0.32) respectively, which suggested narrow SSR allelic diversity within and between cultivar groups. However, distance-based cluster analysis (neighbour-joining tree) and model-based STRUCTURE analysis revealed that safflower cultivars of India and Mexico, with the exception of a few, form two genetically distinct groups. High level of genetic variation explained between the populations (40%) and Fst estimate (0.4) suggested that the cultivar groups were highly differentiated with limited gene flow supporting a strong genetic structuring. High oil (~38%) and high oleic (73–79%) contents of a subset of Mexican safflower varieties and advanced lines were confirmed in field trials in India. These exotic sources from Mexico are valuable for safflower breeding programmes in India to develop new cultivars with high oil yielding potential and high oleic acid content, which is the current market demand.
A new genus and species of deer, Lucentia iberica, is described from the lower Turolian (MN 11) locality of Crevillente 2 (Alicante province, Spain). Eostyloceros pierensis Thomas, 1951 from Piera (Barcelona province) is also included in the new genus. The two-tined Lucentia is not a representative of Muntiacinae. From the emplacement on the cranial cavity and moderate backward inclination of the pedicles, and from the monopodial construction of the antlers, Lucentia is probably the sister group of the clade Cervinae + Odocoileinae. The hypothesis that Lucentia is most closely related to Cervinae is poorly supported by dental features. The Cervinae-Odocoileinae split must have occurred during the late Miocene and it being later, during the Pliocene, when the different lineages acquired the lateral metacarpal reduction, either plesiometacarpal or telemetacarpal states.
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.
Wood-boring bivalves (Bivalvia, family Teredinidae), also known as shipworms, host dinitrogen-fixing and cellulolytic symbiotic bacteria in gill bacteriocytes, which may be a necessary adaptation to a wooden diet. Although oxygen (O2) inhibits nitrogenase in other species, symbionts are able to fix nitrogen (N) within the gill tissue and provide newly fixed N to the host shipworm. The recent direct evidence of new N incorporation into the host tissue indicates that there are potentially complex nutrient cycles in this symbiosis and uninvestigated controls upon these cycles.To elucidate the mechanisms of this unique N2-fixing symbiosis and determine whether symbionts can excrete newly fixed N, we measured rates of growth, N2-fixation, respiration, and inorganic N content for the cultivated symbiont Teredinibacter turnerae (γ-proteobacteria, strain T7901) under a range of headspace O2 conditions. In all conditions, headspace O2 did not affect maximum specific N2-fixation and respiration activity, but did influence the rate and timing of growth. These results are consistent with the development of microaerobic conditions through an oxygen gradient in the culture medium, which facilitates N2-fixation and growth. The medium accumulated a small amount of NH4+, which represented 0.5–2.5% of the total N fixed by the culture. We constructed a simple N budget for T. turnerae to assess the role of the major known N sources and sinks. The N budget was not closed, indicating that new N is allocated to currently unidentified sinks, which may include excreted dissolved organic nitrogen.
Fopius arisanus is a solitary egg–pupal endoparasitoid that attacks several species of tephritid fruit flies, particularly Bactrocera spp. This species, indigenous from the Indo-Australian region, was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. From the standpoint of the ‘new associations’ concept this parasitoid has been evaluated against fruit flies in the Anastrepha complex. We investigated the specificity of F. arisanus responses to fruits infested with two species of Anastrepha. We examined whether fruit volatiles attractive to this parasitoid are induced as a result of fruit fly oviposition. We also investigated whether F. arisanus females are able to discriminate between the oviposition-induced volatiles from host eggs parasitised by conspecifics and volatiles from unparasitised eggs. All experiments were performed in a wind tunnel. Results showed that mango fruits infested with A. ludens eggs (2–3 days after egg deposition) were significantly more attractive to naïve F. arisanus females compared with non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. In addition, guava fruits harbouring A. striata eggs were significantly more attractive to the parasitoid than non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. Thus, the parasitoid was attracted to fruits with eggs, but fruit and fly species did not influence the parasitoid attraction. We also found that F. arisanus females were more attracted to fruits exposed to fertile A. ludens females (i.e. fruits with eggs inside) compared with fruits exposed to sterile females (i.e. fruits with no eggs inside) or fruits with mechanical damage. Parasitoid females were not attracted to A. ludens eggs. The results suggest that the presence of eggs induces volatiles that attract parasitoids. Finally, we found that F. arisanus was able to discriminate between fruits with unparasitised eggs vs. eggs parasitised by conspecifics, indicating that host discrimination could be mediated by olfactory cues.
Different synthesis procedures of Pt supported on tungstated zirconia catalysts (Pt/WOx-ZrO2) were investigated with the aim to elucidate the different WOx nanostructures developed on the zirconia surface depending on the preparation route. Pt/WOx-ZrO2 catalysts were synthesized by the coprecipitation and impregnation methods and pretreated by various procedures such as different calcinations temperatures or the use of reflux. The catalysts characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) and nitrogen physisorption, and the catalytic activity was evaluated in the n-hexane isomerization reaction. The results indicate that the development of active sites for isomerization of n-hexane is enhanced by the stabilization of the WOx nanostructures on the surface of zirconia, before the formation of the WO3 crystallites, and it largely depends on the synthesis method.
Previous studies have shown the sandfly Lutzomyia evansi to be the vector of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia. A longitudinal survey during seven months on the host preference of Lutzomyia evansi was conducted in the visceral leishmaniasis focus of San Andrés de Sotavento, Colombia. Host preference was determined by presenting sandflies with a choice of three baits (human, and the reservoirs dog and opossum) and a blank control in specially designed cone traps. A rotational experimental design involved 56 trap nights in which the effect of bait, proximity to forest and season could be distinguished from the potentially confounding factors of site and day to day variation. From a total of 598 sandflies caught during all experiments, females and males of Lutzomyia evansi accounted for 93.8% of the captures in the baited traps. Overall, human attracted the greatest number of sand flies, followed by the other two baits. Attraction and feeding success showed significant differences (P < 0.0001) between baits.
A series of ceramic oxides were prepared by adding alumina to the superconductor YBaCuO. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS and electrical measurements. Partial drops in electrical resistance (R ≠ 0) indicate the presence of superconducting phases trapped in ceramic masses. Additionally, the systematic diminution of Tc could indicate a partial substitution of Cu by Al.
A series of ceramic oxides were prepared and characterized by DTA, X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements. Partial drops in the electrical resistance were detected in the compounds Y3−x (BaSr)x Cu3,O5-y, which could be associated with partial superconductive phases.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.