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Despite concerns about rising treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic medications and declining treatment with psychotherapy, actual treatment profiles of psychiatric patients is largely unknown.
To describe patterns in the treatment of patients in a large psychiatric university hospital department.
A descriptive mapping of treatment of in- and outpatients in a psychiatric department at Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark. Information was collected by health care staff using a 25-item survey form. The P-value was calculated with a Chi2 test and P < 0.05 was considered significant. The study was preceded by a pilot study on 41 patients.
Over a 1 month period we assessed a total of 343 consecutive patients and hereof included 200 in the age range 18–90 years (mean 53.76); 86 men and 114 women. One hundred and eighty-eight patients (94%) used psychotropic medication, 37 (19%) as monotherapy and 148 (74%) in combination with non-pharmacological therapy. Ninety-seven (49%) had psychotherapy and 104 (52%) social support. Among inpatients, 21 (64%) had physical therapy, and 10 (30%) electroconvulsive therapy. In total, 163 (82%) had non-pharmacological therapy. Fifty-two (26%) patients had monotherapy and 148 (74%) polytherapy. Mean number of treatment modalities used pr. patient was 2.07 for all patients and 3.23 for inpatients.
In our department, polytherapy including non-pharmacological modalities is applied widely across all settings and patient categories. However, psychotropic medication clearly dominates as the most frequently applied treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day. Fasting blood samples, intravenous glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance body composition assessment were carried out. Physical activity was measured using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring during the first and the last week of the intervention. Following the exercise intervention, the LBW group displayed an increase in physical fitness [55.0 ml (O2)/kg min (52.0−58.0)−57.5 ml (O2)/kg min (54.4−60.5)] level and total fat-free mass [10.9% (8.0−13.4)−11.4% (8.0−14.6)], as well as a corresponding decline in the ratio of total fat mass/fat-free mass. In contrast, an increase in total fat percentage as well as total fat mass was observed in the NBW group. After intervention, fasting plasma insulin levels, homoeostasis model assessments (HOMA) of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion (HOMA-IS), improved to the same extent in both the groups. In summary, young men born with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls.
We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning Ni catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the one reported so far. The microfluidic chips integrated with CNTs were successfully used to separate a compound containing two Coumarin dyes, 240 mM C460 and 270 mM C480.
Background and objective: Remifentanil has a short duration of action and constant elimination, which allow administration of high doses, without prolonging recovery. Remifentanil has been compared to alfentanil, as part of a total intravenous anaesthetic technique, where remifentanil provided better anaesthetic conditions than alfentanil, without adverse effect on recovery. However, these results were obtained during anaesthesia involving neuromuscular blockade, which may mask both signs of insufficient anaesthesia and side-effects such as muscle rigidity. The aim of this study was to compare remifentanil with alfentanil for anaesthesia without neuromuscular blockade.
Methods: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, four-centre study to compare remifentanil infusion 15 μg kg−1 h−1 and alfentanil infusion 60 μg kg−1 h−1, using a total intravenous technique for non-paralysed patients, and the laryngeal mask airway for airway management. We enrolled 192 patients, 18–65 yr of age with ASA I–II, undergoing minor surgery. The primary endpoint was the number of patients having pre-defined responses to surgical stimulation. A number of secondary criteria was evaluated to assess undesirable properties of the procedures.
Results: In the alfentanil group, 85% of patients responded to surgical stimulation, vs. 35% in the remifentanil group (P < 0.0001). No difference was found in recovery data, or in any other parameter than those related to insufficient anaesthesia.
Conclusions: The remifentanil-based technique provided significantly better anaesthetic conditions than the alfentanil-based technique in the setting of this study, without causing any significant adverse effects.
CuInSe2 and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 precursor layers have been prepared by electrodeposition, with morphologies suitable for device completion. These precursor films were transformed into photovoltaic quality films after thermal annealing without any post-additional vacuum deposition process. Depending on the preparation parameters annealed films with different band gaps between 1eV and 1.5 eV have been prepared. The dependence of resulting solar cell parameters has been investigated. The best efficiency achieved is about 10,2 % for a band gap of 1.45 eV. This device presents an open circuit voltage value of 740 mV, in agreement with the higher band gap value. Device characterisations (current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and spectral response analysis) have been performed. Admittance spectroscopy at room temperature indicates the presence of two acceptor traps at 0.3 and 0.43 eV from the valance band with density of the order of 2. 1017 cm-3 eV-1.
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