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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment that is most effective for mood disorders.It has also been shown to be an effective form of treatment for schizophrenia. However, many unanswered questions remain regarding its role in the management of people with schizophrenia.
Evaluate the main indications of ECT in schizophrenia patients.
To investigate the efficacy of ECT in the treatment of schizophrenic patients, evaluating its effects in the short-term and the long-term, comparing ECT with pharmacotherapy, and assessing the effects of treatment and the main indications for use in patients with schizophrenia.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted for ECT and schizophrenia. Forty-nine articles from peerreviewed journals were identified.
The most common indication for using ECT for schizophrenia patients was to augment pharmacotherapy, while the most common accompanying symptoms were, in order, catatonia, aggression and suicide. Catatonic patients responded significantly better to ECT than patients with any other subtype of schizophrenia. The combination of ECT with pharmacotherapy can be useful for drug-resistant patients. The use of an ECT-risperidone combination or ECT-clozapine combination in patients non-responsive to prior pharmacotherapy was found to be most effective.
ECT, combined with pharmacotherapy, may be a viable option for a selected group of people with schizophrenia. In particular, the use of ECT is recommended for drug-resistant patients, for schizophrenic patients with catatonia, aggression or suicidal behavior, and when rapid global improvement and reduction of acute symptomatology is desired.
Patients with sleep disorders have a significant increase in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, at the assessment and lifetime (Goodwin et al, 2008; Chellappa et al, 2007; Wojnar et al, 2009; Li et al, 2010).
To evaluate the relationship between sleep disorders and suicidal behavior.
To study factors associated with a diagnosis of insomnia in patients admitted to the Emergency Department.
Participants were 843 patients consecutively admitted to the Emergency Department of the Sant’Andrea University Hospital in Rome, Italy, between January and December 2010. All patients admitted were referred to a psychiatrist. A clinical interview based on the MINI and a semi structured interview were performed. Patients were asked about “ongoing” suicidal ideation or plans for suicide. Clinical diagnoses were assigned according to ICD-10 criteria.
48% received a diagnosis of a mood disorders (BD and MDD) or anxiety disorders, 17.1% Schizophrenia or other non-affective psychosis. Patients with insomnia had more frequently a diagnosis of BD (23.9% vs. 12.4%) or MDD (13.3% vs. 9.5%; P< 0.001). Patients with insomnia less frequently had attempted suicide in the past 24 hours (5.3% vs. 9.5%; P< 0.05) than other patients, but suicide attempters with insomnia more frequently used violent methods (64.3% vs. 23.6%; P< 0.01) than suicide attempters without insomnia.
Our results support a relationship between sleep disorders and suicidal behavior. Clinicians should pay attention to sleep disorders when assessing suicide attempters; in fact, such conditions may have important clinical implications.
The use of Performance and Image-Enhancing Drugs (PIEDs) is on the increase and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders, whose prevalence in unclear.
We aimed to evaluate the differences–if any–in the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIEDs users athletes vs. PIEDs nonusers ones.
We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes (35.8% females; age range = 18–50), training in several sports centers in Italy. They underwent structured interviews (SCID I/SCID II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF). Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test were used for comparisons.
Of the 84 athletes, 18 (21.4%) used PIEDs. The most common PIEDs were anabolic androgenic steroids, amphetamine-like substances, cathinones, ephedrine, and caffeine derivatives (e.g. guarana). The two groups did not differ in socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in anamnestic and psychopathological ones, with PIEDs users athletes being characterized by significantly (P-values < 0.05) higher physical activity levels, consuming more coffee, cigarettes, and psychotropic medications (e.g. benzodiazepines) per day, presenting more SCID diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, especially Substance Use Disorders, Eating Disorders, Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), and General Anxiety Disorders, showing higher BICI scores, which indicate a higher risk of BDD, and higher SCOFF scores, which suggest a higher risk of BIDs and EDs.
In PIEDs users athletes body image and eating disorders, and more in general psychopathological disorders, are more common than in PIEDs nonusers athletes.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Spectral densities of plasma fluctuations are calculated for the thermal case using classical molecular dynamics (MD) assuming Coulomb interactions and a short-range cutoff radius. The aim of the calculation is to verify limits and performances of such calculations in the light of possible generalizations, e.g. collisional or non-ideal plasmas. Results are presented for ideal, collisionless, fully ionized thermal plasmas. Comparison with the analytical theory reveals a generally satisfactory agreement with possibility for improvement when more strict numerical parameters are used albeit with a strong increase in computational cost. The largest deviations have been observed in the vicinity of the weakly damped eigenmodes. The agreement is strong in other parts of the spectrum, where Landau damping is prominent, and overcomes the effects stemming from the excess collisionality and coupling as well as from the exclusion of short-range collisions.
The Hubble Catalog of Variables (HCV) is a 3 year ESA funded project that aims to develop a set of algorithms to identify variables among the sources included in the Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) and produce the HCV. We will process all HSC sources with more than a predefined number of measurements in a single filter/instrument combination and compute a range of lightcurve features to determine the variability status of each source. At the end of the project, the first release of the Hubble Catalog of Variables will be made available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and the ESA Science Archives. The variability detection pipeline will be implemented at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) so that updated versions of the HCV may be created following the future releases of the HSC.
Euclid is the ESA M2 mission and a milestone in the understanding of the geometry of the Universe. In total Euclid will produce up to 26 PB per year of observations. The Science Archive Systems (SAS) belongs to the Euclid Archive System (EAS) that sits in the core of the Euclid Science Ground Segment (SGS). The SAS is being built at the ESAC Science Data Centre (ESDC), which is responsible for the development and operations of the scientific archives for the Astronomy, Planetary and Heliophysics missions of ESA. The SAS is focused on the needs of the scientific community and is intended to provide access to the most valuable scientific metadata from the Euclid mission. In this paper we describe the architectural design of the system, implementation progress and the main challenges from the data management point of view in the building of the SAS.
The tens of millions of radio sources to be detected with next-generation surveys pose new challenges, quite apart from the obvious ones of processing speed and data volumes. For example, existing algorithms are inadequate for source extraction or cross-matching radio and optical/IR sources, and a new generation of algorithms are needed using machine learning and other techniques. The large numbers of sources enable new ways of testing astrophysical models, using a variety of “large-n astronomy” techniques such as statistical redshifts. Furthermore, while unexpected discoveries account for some of the most significant discoveries in astronomy, it will be difficult to discover the unexpected in large volumes of data, unless specific software is developed to mine the data for the unexpected.
We present the results of the search of variable sources and transient events in the archive data of the sky surveys conducted on 3.9 GHz on the RATAN-600 radio telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) in 1980-1994. 17% of the total studied sources can be attributed to the variables in radio range. About half of them has significant variations in optical brightness according to the data of the catalogs. At the level of 3-5 r.m.s. we found three transient events. Two weak events probably associated with AGN activities or with cataclysmic events such as GRB and a supernova flash. The nature of the third event has not been established. According to our estimation the surface density of radio transients is 0.03 on one square angular degree with the detection level 8–11 mJy on 3.94 GHz.
There are still open issues within the fluctuation theory of plasmas, in view of the difficulty of formulating adequate theoretical approaches and solving the related equations in particular regimes. A promising alternative approach is direct microphysical modeling based on first principles, as successfully applied to neutral rarefied fluids. Within this approach, the equations of motion of a large ensemble of charged particles are solved numerically while correlations are obtained from statistical analysis of the ensemble at different times. As a first step, in this work we validate the data analysis technique adopted in this numerical scheme for the case of an electron ensemble neglecting Coulomb interactions. The simulation results are compared with the analytical theory of ‘natural’ fluctuations for both un-magnetized and magnetized plasmas. For the latter, the derivations for arbitrary average distribution functions are presented.