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The control of Anastrepha obliqua includes the sterilization of mass-reared insects grown in isolation in a constantly controlled environment. Through time, laboratory mass-reared colonies may produce flies with lower field performance. To recover the genetic variation and aptitude of mass-reared populations, wild insects are introduced into mass-reared colonies. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the host species from two localities influence the life history traits of A. obliqua. We collected flies as larvae from infested fruits of Spondias purpurea, S. mombin, Mangifera indica cv. ‘piña’, and M. indica cv. ‘coche’ from two localities in Chiapas, Mexico. There were significant differences in the mating competitiveness of males collected from mango cv. ‘coche’ compared with mass-reared males. There were no differences in the mating propensity between flies from the two localities, even in the number of matings, when weight was considered as a covariable. The mass-reared strain showed the earliest age at first oviposition. The locality affected the longevity and oviposition period, and these influenced the birth rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of population increase, mean generation time, and doubling time. According to the demographic parameters, the population of S. mombin would allow artificial colonization in less time, considering that it has a high reproduction rate starting at an early age. Even in the propensity test, it had the highest number of matings. However, males with greater sexual competitiveness and longevity for colonization corresponded to those collected from S. purpurea.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a key element for the integrated management of pest populations of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Mexico. Its success depends on the survival of mass-reared sterile males and their ability to mate with wild females. However, colonization and mass-rearing conditions can adversely affect their ability to avoid predators. To test if colony management strategies could contribute to improve field survival abilities of mass-reared flies, we compared the survival of males exposed to the orb-weaver spider Argiope argentata. Males compared originated from three strains with different colonization strategies: (a) a colony started from field-collected wild flies (replacement), (b) a colony started by hybridizing wild males with mass-reared adapted females (hybrid) and (c) a colony started with mass-reared males selected on the basis of their survival ability and mating competitiveness in field cages (selected). Mass-reared males and wild males were used as controls. Males were exposed to spiders under laboratory cage conditions. Overall, wild males showed better survival ability than mass-reared males. Regarding the colonization approach, wild males survived better than a hybrid, replaced and selected males. We conclude that mass-rearing conditions have a strong negative effect on the ability of males to escape spiders. The colonization systems evaluated did not counter this effect. The lower survival of males from the selected colony suggests that the selection over one generation did not contribute to improve males’ predator avoidance and escape abilities and probably needs to be modified. Possible explanations for this and implications on colonization and colony management for SIT purpose are discussed.
The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.
Fopius arisanus is a solitary egg–pupal endoparasitoid that attacks several species of tephritid fruit flies, particularly Bactrocera spp. This species, indigenous from the Indo-Australian region, was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. From the standpoint of the ‘new associations’ concept this parasitoid has been evaluated against fruit flies in the Anastrepha complex. We investigated the specificity of F. arisanus responses to fruits infested with two species of Anastrepha. We examined whether fruit volatiles attractive to this parasitoid are induced as a result of fruit fly oviposition. We also investigated whether F. arisanus females are able to discriminate between the oviposition-induced volatiles from host eggs parasitised by conspecifics and volatiles from unparasitised eggs. All experiments were performed in a wind tunnel. Results showed that mango fruits infested with A. ludens eggs (2–3 days after egg deposition) were significantly more attractive to naïve F. arisanus females compared with non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. In addition, guava fruits harbouring A. striata eggs were significantly more attractive to the parasitoid than non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. Thus, the parasitoid was attracted to fruits with eggs, but fruit and fly species did not influence the parasitoid attraction. We also found that F. arisanus females were more attracted to fruits exposed to fertile A. ludens females (i.e. fruits with eggs inside) compared with fruits exposed to sterile females (i.e. fruits with no eggs inside) or fruits with mechanical damage. Parasitoid females were not attracted to A. ludens eggs. The results suggest that the presence of eggs induces volatiles that attract parasitoids. Finally, we found that F. arisanus was able to discriminate between fruits with unparasitised eggs vs. eggs parasitised by conspecifics, indicating that host discrimination could be mediated by olfactory cues.
The effect of artificial and natural sources of adult food on the survival and reproduction of the tropical fruit fly, Anastrephaserpentina (Wiedemann) was studied. Caged adult flies were exposed during their whole lifespan to water and one of the following diets: sucrose, intact fruit, open fruit, bird faeces, sucrose plus intact fruit, sucrose plus open fruit, sucrose plus yeast hydrolysate, and sucrose plus bird faeces. All flies exposed to intact fruit or bird faeces died within the first five days of adult life without laying eggs. Females exposed to open fruit exhibited the greatest mean longevity (56.7 days). The highest net fecundity rate was recorded from individuals exposed to sucrose plus yeast hydrolysate (164 eggs per female), followed by those exposed to bird faeces plus sucrose and open fruit (38 and 26 eggs per female, respectively). Some individuals were able to lay viable eggs late in life (>105 days of age). Only populations in which adult flies had access to either sucrose plus yeast hydrolysate, open fruit, or sucrose plus bird faeces exhibited positive intrinsic rates of increase (r). Flies offered a combination of dry sucrose plus open fruit exhibited greatly reduced net fecundity levels when compared with those individuals exposed to open fruit. Even more significantly, populations of flies offered the combination of open fruit plus sucrose exhibited negative rates of increase while those exposed to open fruit alone, grew. We postulate that this reduction in egg production can be explained by a ‘junk food syndrome’.
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