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Evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of specific subpopulations, such as university students, is needed as communities prepare for future waves.
To study the association of proximity of COVID-19 with symptoms of anxiety and depression in university students.
This trend study analysed weekly cross-sectional surveys of probabilistic samples of students from the University of British Columbia for 13 weeks, through the first wave of COVID-19. The main variable assessed was propinquity of COVID-19, defined as ‘knowing someone who tested positive for COVID-19’, which was specified at different levels: knowing someone anywhere globally, in Canada, in Vancouver, in their course or at home. Proximity was included in multivariable linear regressions to assess its association with primary outcomes, including 30-day symptoms of anxiety and/or depression.
Of 1388 respondents (adjusted response rate of 50%), 5.6% knew someone with COVID-19 in Vancouver, 0.8% in their course and 0.3% at home. Ten percent were overwhelmed and unable to access help. Knowing someone in Vancouver was associated with an 11-percentage-point increase in the probability of 30-day anxiety symptoms (s.e. 0.05, P ≤ 0.05), moderated by gender, with a significant interaction of the exposure and being female (coefficient −20, s.e. 0.09, P ≤ 0.05). No association was found with depressive symptoms.
Propinquity of COVID-19 cases may increase the likelihood of anxiety symptoms in students, particularly among men. Most students reported coping well, but additional support is needed for an emotionally overwhelmed minority who report being unable to access help.
The recently discovered orthorhombic allotrope of silicon, Si24, is an exciting prospective material for the future of solar energy due to a quasi-direct bandgap near 1.3 eV, coupled with the abundance and environmental stability of silicon. Synthesized via precursor Na4Si24 at high temperature and pressure (∼850 °C, 9 GPa), typical synthesis results have yielded polycrystalline samples with crystallites on the order of 20 μm. Several approaches to increase the crystal size have yielded success, including in-situ thermal spikes and refined selection of the starting materials. Microstructural analysis suggests that coherency exists between diamond silicon (d-Si) and Na4Si24. This hypothesis has led to the successful attempts at single crystal synthesis by selecting large crystals of d-Si along with metallic Na as the precursors rather than powdered and mixed precursor material. The new synthesis approach has yielded single crystals of Na4Si24 greater than 100 μm. These results represent a breakthrough in synthesis that enables further characterization and utility. The promise of Si24 for the future of solar energy generation and efficient electronics is strengthened through these advances in synthesis.
Castor is an industrially important oilseed crop. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini is a serious disease of castor. Use of resistant cultivars is the only viable option for management of wilt disease problem in castor production. Excellent sources of resistance to wilt have been found in castor germplasm. In this study, a set of four castor inbred lines (48–1, CI-1, AP42 and AP48) was characterized for inheritance of resistance to wilt by studying segregating populations generated by crossing these inbred lines with eight different susceptible genotypes. An artificial screening method (sick pot) with a new scoring system (days to wilt) was used for evaluation of plant progenies for reaction to the pathogen infection. The reaction of F1s indicated that the nature of resistance in 48–1, CI-1 and AP48 is recessive whereas it was dominant in AP42. Inheritance results from eight F2 populations showed that resistance to wilt is conferred by a single locus in one population and at least two loci, which interact in complementary way, in other seven populations. Different modes of inheritance were also observed when the same resistant source was crossed with different susceptible parents, indicating the possible role of genetic backgrounds in determining resistance. Overall, the results suggested that Mendelian resistance to wilt is predominant in the castor genotypes, which can be exploited for breeding cultivars. Particularly, AP42 with dominant nature of resistance will be of great interest to hybrid breeding.
Opiates such as morphine and fentanyl, a major class of analgesics used in the clinical management of pain, exert their effects through the activation of opioid receptors. Opioids are among the most commonly prescribed and frequently abused drugs in the USA; however, the prolonged use of opiates often leads to the development of tolerance and addiction. Although blockade of opioid receptors with antagonists such as naltrexone and naloxone can lessen addictive impulses and facilitate recovery from overdose, systemic disruption of endogenous opioid receptor signalling through the use of these antagonistic drugs can have severe side effects. In the light of these challenges, current efforts have focused on identifying new therapeutic targets that selectively and specifically modulate opioid receptor signalling and function so as to achieve analgesia without the adverse effects associated with chronic opiate use. We have previously reported that opioid receptors interact with each other to form heteromeric complexes and that these interactions affect morphine signalling. Since chronic morphine administration leads to an enhanced level of these heteromers, these opioid receptor heteromeric complexes represent novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction. In this review, we discuss the role of heteromeric opioid receptor complexes with a focus on mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) heteromers. We also highlight the evidence for altered pharmacological properties of opioid ligands and changes in ligand function resulting from the heteromer formation.
We report CdTe/CdS solar cell with CdTe layer grown by sputtering method. A controlled etch and anneal process on the sputter-grown CdTe films was performed to increase the average grain size of the film. The process involved dipping the CdTe films in a saturated solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in methanol (2.08 gram in 100 ml) followed by a 30 minute annealing at 400 °C. We performed various experiments on this process by varying the dipping times, drying process and annealing times and analyzed the resultant films using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We could see a clear increase in grain size from 200 nm to 5 μm after CdCl2 treatment. The process also increased the overall roughness of the sample so that more light is absorbed than reflected. We prepared solar cells using CdTe as p-type layer and CdS as n-type layer. The efficiency of the cell improved from 1.1% to 4.2% after air annealing. The effect of air-annealing is studied by means of quantum efficiency measurement.
Although pyrite (FeS2) is abundant, getting a single-phase pyrite thin film is difficult due to the coexistence of various phases of iron and sulfur in nature. We propose an ink-based process for attaining the pyrite phase of iron sulfide. This work involves degassing Iron (II) chloride in an octadecylamine solution and later reflux with addition of sulfur in diphenyl ether at 200°C. The process yielded phase-pure single crystalline pyrite nanocrystals which were later cleaned and dispersed in chloroform for uniform suspension. Thus obtained nanocrystals were deposited as thin films using drop casting and spin coating. Solar cells were fabricated using CdS as an n-type window layer in a superstrate configuration. When tested, the superstrate type FeS2 nanoparticle cell showed 0.03% with high Voc of 565 mV.
Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease and currently poses the greatest arboviral threat to human health. In recent decades, there has been a substantial increase in dengue outbreaks in many parts of the world including India. We performed an in-depth investigation of a major dengue outbreak in Andhra Pradesh, southern India in 2007 by serology, virus isolation, RT–PCR and genotyping. The results revealed an unusual emergence of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) along with the prevailing DENV-3. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene of 182 globally diverse DENV-4 isolates demonstrated the involvement of a unique clade of genotype I of DENV-4 in the outbreak. This study also demonstrated a clear shift in the dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-4 in India. This is the first report regarding the molecular characterization of Indian isolates of DENV-4, which has the potential to be involved in future outbreaks.
Brain serotonin2 (5-hydroxytryptamine2; 5-HT2) receptors were considered potential targets for therapeutic efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but pre-clinical studies showed that electroconvulsive shock up-regulates 5-HT2 receptors in contrast to antidepressant medications, which down-regulate brain 5-HT2 receptors. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in individuals with depression confirmed that antidepressant medications reduce brain 5-HT2 receptors, but the effects of ECT on these receptors in individuals with depression are unknown.
To determine if a course of ECT alters brain 5-HT2 receptors in individuals with depression and whether such changes correlate with improvement in symptoms.
Fifteen people with major depression, refractory to antidepressant therapy and referred for a course of ECT, had an [18F]setoperone scan during baseline drug-free washout period and another after a course of ECT. We assessed changes in brain 5-HT2 receptors with ECT and their relationship to therapeutic outcome.
Widespread reduction in brain 5-HT2 receptors was observed in all cortical areas with changes slightly more prominent in the right hemisphere. There was a trend for correlation between reduction in brain 5-HT2 receptors in right parahippocampal gyrus, right lingual gyrus and right medial frontal gyrus, and improvement in depressive symptoms.
Unlike in rodents, and similar to antidepressants, ECT reduces brain 5-HT2 receptors in individuals with depression. The ability of ECT to further down-regulate brain 5-HT2 receptors in antidepressant non-responsive individuals may explain its efficacy in those people with antidepressant refractory depression.
The stability of Soret-driven thermosolutal convection in a shallow horizontal layer of a porous medium subjected to inclined thermal and solutal gradients of finite magnitude is investigated theoretically by means of a linear stability analysis. The horizontal components of these gradients induce a Hadley circulation, which becomes unstable when vertical components are sufficiently large. We employed a two-term Galerkin approximation for various modes of instability. The effect of the Soret parameter on the mechanism of instability of the thermosolutal convection is investigated. Results are presented for various values of the governing parameters of the flow. It is observed that the Soret parameter has a significant effect on convective instability and this is discussed.
Conducting poly(o-toluidine) (PoT) was synthesized from a derivative of
aniline (o-toluidine) monomer by chemical oxidative polymerization method. After polymerization, the polymer prepared was then blended with Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) to achieve films. FTIR and UV-Visible studies were carried out to get their optical information. The blends were irradiated by Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) beam of 60 MeV C5+ ions with different fluences. Post Irradiation FTIR and UV-Visible spectroscopy were carried out on these films, which revealed changes in the band gap with irradiation. There are also changes in the functional groups, which are confirmed by FTIR spectra. Optical band gap is found to decrease at all fluences and increased with increase in fluence.
Six distinct biotypes of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason), have been characterized so far from different parts of India and their geographical distribution has been well mapped and monitored annually through the national gall midge biotype studies. These studies have been showing minor changes in the virulence pattern of the pest population at Warangal in Andhra Pradesh state since 2000. Hence, a sample of the pest population from the site was collected during 2003 and selected subsequently in a greenhouse through 13 successive generations for virulence against diverse sources of plant resistance. This Warangal-derived population (WDP) was tested to record reactions of two sets of differential rice varieties used for biotype detection and known to carry one of the 10 known gall midge-resistance genes. The results revealed that WDP has acquired virulence against CR-MR1523, one of the biotype differential rice varieties, which derived resistance from the source Ptb21 cultivar. Since the virulence pattern noted for WDP was different from that noted for the six characterized biotypes, it is proposed to designate this new biotype, tentatively, as biotype 4M. Only three of the resistance genes, viz. Gm3Gm4 and Gm8 confer resistance against this biotype.
The mechanism by which rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) paradigm induces depressive relapse in recently remitted patients with depression is unknown.
To determine the effects of RTD on brain 5-HT2 receptors using positron emission tomography (PET) and 18F-labelled setoperone.
Ten healthy women underwent two PET scans. Each scan was done 5 h after the ingestion of either a balanced or a tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture, and the two test sessions were separated by at least 5 days.
The RTD decreased plasma free tryptophan levels significantly but it had no significant effects on mood. Subjects showed a significant decrease in brain 5-HT2 receptor binding in various cortical regions following the RTD session.
When taken with the evidence that antidepressant treatment is associated with a decrease in brain 5-HT2 receptors, these findings suggest that a decrease in 5-HT2 binding following RTD might be an adaptive response that provides protection against depressive symptoms.
Although lipomas are the most common benign tumours of the head and neck, the involvement of the skull base is rare and it is also very rare for a lipoma to undergo osseous metaplasia to become an ossifying lipoma or osteolipoma. We present a case of a solitary osteolipoma involving the skull base in a 17-year-old girl. A few cases of osteolipoma involving the head and neck have been reported, but this may be the first reported case of a solitary osteolipoma involving the skull base with extension to the infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal space. The computed tomography (CT) scan helped to clinch the diagnosis and the histopathology confirmed it. The clinical presentation, role of CT scan, surgical approach used, histological features and the review of literature are discussed.
A case of subglottic narrowing caused by an extranodal deposit of sinus histiocytosis in a 29-year-old man is reported. The characteristic features of Rosai-Dorfman disease, such as massive painless cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate and raised white cell count, were all found to be absent. However, typical histological features, such as diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, Russel bodies, foamy histiocytes and histiocytes with emperipoiesis, confirmed the diagnosis. Rosai-Dorfman disease is an uncommon disorder and its presentation with progressive subglottic narrowing is extremely rare. Our experience in the management of this condition is reported and the review of literature is discussed.
Nucleation in multi-component systems is poorly understood, particularly when the rates of long-range diffusion are comparable with the rates of attachment at the cluster interface. For illustration, measurements of the time-dependent nucleation rates in silicate and metallic glasses are discussed. A new model for nucleation in partitioning systems, which explains many of devitrification microstructural features in bulk metallic glasses, is presented.
Previous control studies carried out in children showed that respiratory infection alters riboflavin metabolism and leads to excessive urinary losses of the vitamin. In order to understand the nature of biochemical changes in riboflavin metabolism during respiratory infection, a study was carried out using the mouse as the experimental model, and Klebsiella pneumonjue as the infective organism. Mice were fed on either a low(0·5 mg/kg)- or high(13·3 mg/kg)-riboflavin semi-synthetic diet. Infection resulted in a 5–6-fold higher excretion of riboflavin in the urine of mice fed on the low-riboflavin diet. Higher erythrocyte FAD levels and lower liver FAD levels were also observed during infection. Of the four enzymes involved in the synthesis and breakdownof the flavin coenzymes studied, the activity of hepatic flavokinase (ATP: riboflavin 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 18.104.22.168) was significantly lower, and that of FAD synthetase (ATP: FMN adenylyltransferase; EC 22.214.171.124) was higher during riboflavin restriction and infection. The activity of FMN (acid) phosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) was unchanged, whereas FAD (nucleotide) pyrophosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity was significantly higher both with the low-riboflavin diet and during infection. Thyroid hormone is known to modulate flavokinase activity and, hence, thyroid status was assessed. Plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels were not affected, but thyroxine levels were lower in the mice fed on the low-riboflavin diet. However, plasma T3 was significantly lower during infection, suggesting a mechanistic role for the hormone in the reduction of flavokinase activity.
A characterization of group congruences on an eventually regular semigroup S is provided. It is shown that a group congruence is dually right modular in the lattice of congruences on S. Also for any group congruence ℸ and any congruence p on S, ℸ Vp and kernel ℸ Vp are described.
Multi–frequency Observations of Solar Microwave bursts recorded during solar maximum period 1980–81 are analysed and compared with x–ray data for studying the nature of microwave emissions from active regions. Most of the microwave burst spectra showed that the spectral index below the peak frequency is always less than 2.
The magneto-ionic conditions of the burst sources and the electron energies as obtained from these multi-frequency observations of the bursts showed that the centimetric and x-ray observations are satisfactorily explained, if the emitting regions are dense, hot and compact associated with strong magnetic fields of a few hundred gauss, suggesting that the thermal gyroresonance process is the most likely emission mechanism involved in the emission of microwave and x-ray radiations from the active regions of sun.
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