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UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
Long-acting atypical antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of substance use disorders and comorbid psychosis.
To investigate the impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) on craving and satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. Craving and satisfaction levels in patients and relatives were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We used the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) to assess clinical severity and global improvement, and the GAF scale to assess global functioning. 35 patients completed the study and underwent a systematic assessment at baseline and after 3 and 6 months.
After 6 months of treatment, mean craving scores decreased in patients treated with PPLAI when compared to baseline scores (4.9 vs 2.3). Mean satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients increased (6.0 vs 9.1), and satisfaction levels in their relatives improved after 6 months (5.2 vs 9.5). Patients receiving PPLAI showed a statistically significant decrease in consumption relapses, had lower scores in CGI for clinical severity (CGISI), higher scores in global improvement (CGI-GI), and higher scores in global functioning.
After 6 months of PPLAI treatment, psychotic patients with substance use had lower craving levels. Satisfaction levels were higher in patients and their relatives. Consumption relapses decrease and patients had higher scores in global functioning.
The efficacy of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in dual schizophrenia patients has been well established.
To investigate the efficacy of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate(PPLAI) in the psychopathology of dual psychotic patients. To examine the tolerability profile of PPLAI in dual psychosis.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. We used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess psychotic symptoms and the Udvalg für Kliniske Undersogelser Scale (UKU) to evaluate treatment tolerability, at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Prolactin levels were also determined at the time of the study inclusion and after 6 months.
Thirty-five patients were included into the study. After 6 months of treatment, patients receiving PPLAI showed a significant improvement in positive symptoms (disorganisation, suspiciousness), negative symptoms (emotional withdrawal, motor retardation, blunted affect and confusion), affective symptoms (somatic concern, anxiety and depression) and in motor symptoms (unco-operativeness, excitement). When compared to the 3rd month assessment, after 6 months, statistically significant differences were found in items 4,11,14,17 and 18. Patients receiving PPLAI had lower rates of side effects assessed by UKU Scale (asthenia, sedation, failing memory, tension, insomnia, rigidity, tremor, weight gain and sexual dysfunction). Baseline prolactin levels ranged 11–122 (mean:38), at 6 months: 20–136 (mean:38.4).
After 6 months, patients receiving PPLAI had lower psychotic symptoms, a decrease in side effects, and a significant improvement in global functioning. No changes in prolactin levels were found.
Group psychoeducation is an effective psychotherapy in the treatment of addictive behaviours.
To evaluate the efficacy of group psychoeducation on quality of life in relatives of dual diagnosed patients.
To investigate the impact of group psychoeducation on treatment compliance.
A case-control study was conducted between January 2012 and July 2012. Case group: seventy relatives and 53 patients included into an 8 session systematic psychoeducational group designed as follows: 1.5 hours every 3 weeks. The control group was formed by 53 patients who did not participate in psychoeducation during the same period. To assess quality of life in relatives, we used the Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). Attendance rates for appointments were recorded in patients from both groups.
At baseline, relatives had poor outcomes in quality of life (Vitality: 49.8; emotional role: 49.3; mental health: 51.8, and general health perception: 54.9). Psychoeducated, as compared to control group relatives, had significantly better outcomes in quality of life (Vitality 71.0; emotional role 82.6; mental health 72.6, and general health perception 66.5). When compared to the control group, mean psychiatric appointments were higher in patients whose relatives were psychoeducated (8.2 vs.3.6).
Our findings suggest that psychoeducation can improve quality of life in relatives of patients with addictive behaviours. Attendance rates for appointments were higher in patients whose relatives were psychoeducated.
Family psychoeducation is an effective intervention extensively used in the treatment of mental disorders.
To examine the efficacy of group psychoeducation in anxious and depressive symptoms in relatives of patients with addictive behaviours. To investigate satisfaction levels in relatives.
Seventy relatives of 53 outpatients were included into group psychoeducation between January and July 2012. This 8 session structured psychoeducational group is designed as follows: 1.5 hours every 3 weeks. To assess psychopathological symptoms, we used the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period. Family satisfaction levels were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).
59% of relatives were men, and mean age was 55 years. 45% of the patients had a cocaine dependence disorder, 34% alcohol dependence disorder, and 93% co-dependence disorders. 74% had a dual diagnosis (Psychosis, affective disorders, or personality disorders). 90% had psychosocial stress (60% moderate or severe). Anxious symptoms were found in 30% of the relatives, being psychic anxiety most common in women than in men. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were found in 30% of relatives (mild:30%; moderate:25%, severe:15%). Women were more likely to have moderate-severe depression and men mild-depression disorders. After 8 sessions, mean satisfaction levels assessed by EVA Scale were 9.2
Statistically significant gender differences in anxious and depressive symptoms were found in relatives. Satisfaction levels were higher than expected, and a significant reduction in anxiety and depression was found after the group psychoeducation.
In recent years, special attention has been paid to the quality of life in dual psychotic patients.
To study quality of life in psychotic patients with co-occurring substance use recently treated with long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) in monotherapy.
An open-label, non-interventional, observational study was carried out in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who were recently treated with PPLAI in monotherapy. At baseline, main demographic and clinical variables were recorded. The Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36) was assessed at the time of the study inclusion, and after 3 and 6 months. Thirty-five patients completed the study.
81% were men, and mean age was 39 years. 31% had an alcohol dependence disorder, 26% opiates, 24% cocaine, 14% cannabis, and 100% nicotine dependence. 95% had co-dependence substance use disorders. 38% per cent were diagnosed as having an unspecified psychosis, 36% schizophrenia, 57% Axis II and 55% III disorders. 29% were previously treated with oral antipsychotics, and 71% received long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI). 83% were treated with other non-psychopharmacological drugs. After 6 months of treatment, higher scores were found in the following SF-36 items: Vitality (31 vs.77), social functioning (48 vs.85), mental health (49 vs 78), health subjective perception (45 vs.70), and health improvement (65 vs.87). Transaminase levels did not change after treatment. Mean PPLAI dosage at baseline: 111.18 mg; mean dosage at 6 months: 132.86.
High psychopathological and organic comorbidity was found. Quality of life improved after 6 months of treatment. PPLAI 100 mg was the most common prescribed dosage.
agitation is a frequent and complex emergency. Prehospital management of agitation requires appropriate measures to preserve patients’ safety, stabilize the patient and alleviate suffering, and transfer to the hospital psychiatric services, including involuntary admission if needed.
To describe the incidence and management of agitation by the emergency medical service of Castilla y León (S aCyL) in an area of Valladolid.
Retrospective study of all psychiatric emergencies attended by a prehospital emergency medical service in 2014.
one hundred and twenty-one emergencies were attended over a catchment area that covered 170,000 inhabitants (1.4/1000 inhab.). Overall, 55% were men, mean age was 45 years, 60% were considered psychiatric, 29% organic and 11% mixed. However, men had a higher frequency of organic (39%) compared to psychiatric (48%) agitation than women (16% and 75%, respectively), and most of them were related to alcohol or drug use. among patients with psychiatric or mixed agitation 81% had psychiatric history and the pharmacologic treatment most frequently used was intramuscular midazolam.
The incidence of acute agitation accounts for almost half of the total psychiatric emergencies in the prehospital setting. Since there are different healthcare providers in charge, specific protocols as well as treatment procedures are needed to provide the most adequate management, in order to ensure the best psychiatric emergency chain.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Early stages after a first psychotic episode (FEP) are crucial for the prognosis of the disease. Those patients who drop out of treatment after a FEP show a significant increase in their vulnerability to relapse. Relapses associated a greater risk of neurotoxicity, chronicity, hospitalization, decrease of response to the treatment, increase of burden and functional decline.
To determine what antipsychotic is more effective in the prevention of relapse after a first psychotic episode.
Material and methods
PAFIP is an assistance program focused on early intervention in psychosis. Between January 2001 and January 2011, 255 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to treatment with haloperidol (n = 48), olanzapine (n = 41), risperidone (n = 44), quetiapine (n = 34), ziprasidone (n = 38) and aripiprazole (n = 50). We compared the rates of relapse and remission reached by haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine during a 3-year follow-up. All of the patients were antipsychotic naives at the beginning of the treatment.
There were no statistically significant differences in regard to the rate of clinical remission. Patients assigned to the groups of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone presented a solid trend to a significantly inferior rate of discontinuation for any reason since the beginning of the treatment.
These data point to a greater protection against relapse and a likely better prognosis related to the use of aripiprazole, Olanzapine and risperidone.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Gender dysphoria is incoherence between the sex a person feels or expresses and the biological.
Revise the inclusion criteria for hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery in gender dysphoria. Expose the multidisciplinary approach. Make differential diagnosis with other psychological disorders.
A 45 years old male patient (biological female), who was sent from Endocrinology Unit for a psychiatric evaluation before restart a hormonal treatment. Since his childhood, he has presented dissatisfaction with his sexual characteristics; he has had fantasies and dreams, in which he belonged to the other sex. He has always chosen male activities and male stereotypes companies. He has presented preference for cross-dressing from 9 years. Always felt the sexual attraction for women. He first consulted for this reason in 1995.
It reported favorably to start hormone treatment after completing the eligibility criteria: > 18 years old; knowledge of the effects of hormones; and more 3 months documented real-life experience. The hormone therapy caused the growth of microprolactinoma, which was treated with dopamine agonists until it disappeared and the cessation of galactorrhea. Testosterone treatment is restarted. Laboratory tests are done every 3 months during the first year and then, every 6 months.
Is the gender disphoria a pathology? The EU recommends a reclassification as no pathological disorders in ICD-11. The treatment of gender dysphoria is necessary, and there is no reason to postpone it. The main difficulty is the differential diagnosis; there may be comorbidity with others mental disorders which are not exclusive (psychotic disorder, OCD, personality disorders and other disorders of gender identity).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of depressive episodes is well established, and so is reflected in the major guides.
Description of a clinical case of a patient diagnosed with major depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder prevalence of compulsive acts that do not respond to drug treatment but to electroconvulsive therapy.
Presentation and review of a case.
A 55-year-old woman diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder with worsening in the last 4 years.
Clinical depressive Sadness, spontaneous crying in the form of access, apathy, isolation and clinofilia desires, complaints mnemonic deficits and complete anhedonia. Obsessional symptoms compulsive as more repetitive behaviors of obsessive ideas, which repeats incessantly despite checking, that does not prepare or calm. The patient has not responded to any pharmacological strategy, despite using full doses and combinations of antidepressant, but euthymics more antipsychotics (sertraline, fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, lithium, valproic acid, lamotrigine, risperidone, quetiapine, trifluoperazine, clotiapine). For this reason, it was decided to start treatment with ECT, progressively responds in each session, after 8 sessions the patient is euthymic, it has resumed normal activities, no obsessive or psychotic symptoms.
It is important to know that it is a safe technique that would save not only an economic cost, if not a personal emotional cost. It is noteworthy that more than 50% of depressed patients who respond to a course of ECT, fall between 6 and 12 months despite receiving adequate pharmacological treatment then so we will have to closely monitor the patient.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
NGC 7469 is a well-known type 1 AGN with a cirumnuclear star formation ring. It has previous detections of X-rays warm absorbers and an infrared biconical outflow. We analysed archival MUSE/VLT observations of this galaxy in order to look for an optical counterpart of these outflows. We report spatially resolved winds in the [O III] λ5007 emission line in two regimes: a high velocity regime possibly associated with the AGN and a slower one associated with the massive star formation of the ring. This slower regime is also detected with Hβ.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries.
Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes.
Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability.
Due to rising pressure to appear egalitarian, subtle discrimination pervades today's workplace. Although its ambiguous nature may make it seem innocuous on the surface, an abundance of empirical evidence suggests subtle discrimination undermines employee and organizational functioning, perhaps even more so than its overt counterpart. In the following article, we argue for a multidimensional and continuous, rather than categorical, framework for discrimination. In doing so, we propose that there exist several related but distinct continuums on which instances of discrimination vary, including subtlety, formality, and intentionality. Next, we argue for organizational scholarship to migrate toward a more developmental, dynamic perspective of subtle discrimination in order to build a more comprehensive understanding of its antecedents, underlying mechanisms, and outcomes. We further contend that everyone plays a part in the process of subtle discrimination at work and, as a result, bears some responsibility in addressing and remediating it. We conclude with a brief overview of research on subtle discrimination in the workplace from each of four stakeholder perspectives—targets, perpetrators, bystanders, and allies—and review promising strategies that can be implemented by each of these stakeholders to remediate subtle discrimination in the workplace.