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Hippocampal dysfunction is considered central to many neurobiological models of schizophrenia, yet there are few longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging studies that have investigated the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and morphologic changes within specific hippocampal subregions among patients with psychosis.
A total of 29 patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis with little or no prior antipsychotic exposure received structural neuroimaging examinations at illness onset and then following 12 weeks of treatment with either risperidone or aripiprazole in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. In addition, 29 healthy volunteers received structural neuroimaging examinations at baseline and 12-week time points. We manually delineated six hippocampal subregions [i.e. anterior cornu ammonis (CA) 1–3, posterior CA1–3, subiculum, dentate gyrus/CA4, entorhinal cortex, and fimbria] from 3T magnetic resonance images using an established method with high inter- and intra-rater reliability.
Following antipsychotic treatment patients demonstrated significant reductions in dentate gyrus/CA4 volume and increases in subiculum volume. Healthy volunteers demonstrated non-significant volumetric changes in these subregions across the two time points. We observed a significant quadratic (i.e. inverted U) association between changes in dentate gyrus/CA4 volume and cumulative antipsychotic dosage between the scans.
This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge regarding longitudinal in vivo volumetric changes within specific hippocampal subregions in patients with psychosis following antipsychotic treatment. The finding of a non-linear relationship between changes in dentate gyrus/CA4 subregion volume and antipsychotic exposure may provide new avenues into understanding dosing strategies for therapeutic interventions relevant to neurobiological models of hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis.
Pulsed laser deposited cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoporous thin film on platinum (Pt) coated glass has been used for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) by electrostatic interaction. Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO2 thin film. Differential pulse voltammetric and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO2/Pt bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of glucose over the concentration upto 300 mg/dl. A low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant∼1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose.
Poorly defined cohorts and weak study designs have hampered cross-cultural comparisons of course and outcome in schizophrenia.
To describe long-term outcome in 18 diverse treated incidence and prevalence cohorts. To compare mortality, 15- and 25-year illness trajectory and the predictive strength of selected baseline and short-term course variables.
Historic prospective study. Standardised assessments of course and outcome.
About 75% traced. About 50% of surviving cases had favourable outcomes, but there was marked heterogeneity across geographic centres. In regression models, early (2-year) course patterns were the strongest predictor of 15-year outcome, but recovery varied by location; 16% of early unremitting cases achieved late-phase recovery.
A significant proportion of treated incident cases of schizophrenia achieve favourable long-term outcome. Sociocultural conditions appear to modify long-term course. Early intervention programmes focused on social as well as pharmacological treatments may realise longer-term gains.
The imposition of swirl on co-axial jets exhausting into confined space, akin to a combustor model, has far reaching effects on their mixing and flow development. In the present paper, the influence of swirl on both the jets has been determined in terms of velocity and pressure distributions in the confined space. It has been shown that swirl in the central jet leads to faster mixing whereas higher swirl in the annular jet improves both mixing and development.
In view of the increase in micronutrient deficiencies in crop plants, ans attempt is made to group 57 Benchmark Indian soils into different micronutrient availability classes (clusters) vis-à-vis some soil characteristics. Since most of the soil characters are expressed in proportions or percentages (a usual practice in soil studies), the data matrix was transformed into log10 values to bring it nearer to normality. The transformed data matrix was used for cluster analysis and subsequently also for discriminant analysis. By following the method of Euclidean cluster analysis, the 57 Benchmark soils could be subdivided into three clusters. The distinctness of clusters was proven by distance-matrix as well as discriminant analysis. All the soils of cluster I and II originated from arid and semi-arid climates and these were alkaline in reaction, low in organic carbon (OC) and high in total lime. On the contrary, cluster III comprised all but a few soils from humid-subhumid regions. These soils were acidic in reaction and relatively high in OC and total lime. The soils of cluster I and II were poorer in diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) extractable micronutrient cations than those of cluster III. This study thus reveals that it is possible to classify diverse soils by statistical means into distinct clusters based upon micronutrient availability and associated soil properties. Furthermore, it suggests that soils of arid and semi-arid climates as a group, because of their low micronutrient availability, are expected to be more prone to deficiencies than those of humid and subhumid zones.