In this paper, low-energy (45 keV) implantations of phosphorous and boron into silicon were studied. A comparison of doping profiles, secondary defect formation, electrical activation and diode leakage was made between Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) and conventional furnace annealing. The samples were analysed by High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HR-XRD), X-TEM, SIMS, spreading resistance (SRP) and sheet resistance measurements.
The non-destructive HR-XRD technique combined with the novel simulation software was a very useful tool for the defect characterisation and for the choice of the optimum annealing temperature. Furthermore estimations of electrically active dopant atoms were made with HR-XRD by measurement of the strain. With RTA a substitutional dopant concentration of a factor 2 to 4 higher than with furnace annealing can be obtained, for P and B respectively. Electrical measurements show that not all of the substitutional dopants are electrically active, however. Thus estimates of the electrically active dopant atoms with HR-XRD require further study. Furthermore it appeared that RTA was superior to furnace anneal for lowering sheet resistances, defect removal and dopant profile broadening. However, furnace anneal gave the best results for diode leakage currents. This indicates that RTA processing needs to be further refined or that combined RTA/furnace processes need to be developed.