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To describe interfacility transfer communication (IFTC) methods for notification of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) status in a diverse sample of acute-care hospitals.
Hospitals within the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network (SRN).
SRN members completed an electronic survey on protocols and methods for IFTC. We assessed differences in IFTC frequency, barriers, and perceived benefit by presence of an IFTC protocol.
Among 136 hospital representatives who were sent the survey, 54 (40%) responded, of whom 72% reported having an IFTC protocol in place. The presence of a protocol did not differ significantly by hospital size, academic affiliation, or international status. Of those with IFTC protocols, 44% reported consistent notification of MDRO status (>75% of the time) to receiving facilities, as opposed to 13% from those with no IFTC protocol (P = .04). Respondents from hospitals with IFTC protocols reported significantly fewer barriers to communication compared to those without (2.8 vs 4.3; P = .03). Overall, however, most respondents (56%) reported a lack of standardization in communication. Presence of an IFTC protocol did not affect whether respondents perceived IFTC protocols as having a significant impact on infection prevention or antimicrobial stewardship.
Most respondents reported having an IFTC protocol, which was associated with reduced communication barriers at transfer. Standardization of protocols and clarity about expectations for sending and receipt of information related to MDRO status may facilitate IFTC and promote appropriate and timely infection prevention practices.
We present a case of late symptom onset of COVID-19 infection 72 days after initial diagnosis in an immunocompromised 53-year-old man. SARS-CoV-2 was cultured from his sputum sample at this time, and genomic sequencing suggested reinfection was unlikely. After receipt of convalescent plasma, SARS-CoV-2 became undetectable by PCR 111 days after diagnosis, although SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remained not detectable. This case posed difficult public health management issues in a low prevalence COVID-19 setting as the person required extended home isolation given his prolonged SARS-CoV-2 PCR detection.
Upscaling the effect of heterogeneities in porous media is crucial for macroscopic flow predictions, with numerous applications in energy and environmental settings. In this study, we derive simple semi-analytical expressions for the upscaling of multiphase flow in a porous medium with a range of vertical heterogeneities. We use this upscaling to give insight into how the flow transitions between a viscous flow regime, in which macroscopic pressure gradients dominate over heterogeneity-driven capillary forces, and a capillary flow regime, in which these capillary forces dominate and set the saturation distribution of the flow. In particular, by studying the dynamics of flow in an aquifer, we demonstrate that different regions lie within the viscous and capillary flow regimes whilst other regions lie in between these regimes. By modifying the classic Buckley–Leverett problem for fluid displacement we demonstrate where and when the flow transitions between these regimes and how this affects flooding speeds. Then, we discuss the implications of these results in the case of carbon dioxide sequestration, making comparisons with field data.
To conduct a pilot study implementing combined genomic and epidemiologic surveillance for hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) to predict transmission between patients and to estimate the local burden of MDRO transmission.
Pilot prospective multicenter surveillance study.
The study was conducted in 8 university hospitals (2,800 beds total) in Melbourne, Australia (population 4.8 million), including 4 acute-care, 1 specialist cancer care, and 3 subacute-care hospitals.
All clinical and screening isolates from hospital inpatients (April 24 to June 18, 2017) were collected for 6 MDROs: vanA VRE, MRSA, ESBL Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb). Isolates were analyzed and reported as routine by hospital laboratories, underwent whole-genome sequencing at the central laboratory, and were analyzed using open-source bioinformatic tools. MDRO burden and transmission were assessed using combined genomic and epidemiologic data.
In total, 408 isolates were collected from 358 patients; 47.5% were screening isolates. ESBL-Ec was most common (52.5%), then MRSA (21.6%), vanA VRE (15.7%), and ESBL-Kp (7.6%). Most MDROs (88.3%) were isolated from patients with recent healthcare exposure.
Combining genomics and epidemiology identified that at least 27.1% of MDROs were likely acquired in a hospital; most of these transmission events would not have been detected without genomics. The highest proportion of transmission occurred with vanA VRE (88.4% of patients).
Genomic and epidemiologic data from multiple institutions can feasibly be combined prospectively, providing substantial insights into the burden and distribution of MDROs, including in-hospital transmission. This analysis enables infection control teams to target interventions more effectively.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Depression is common in nursing homes, with newly admitted residents at a particularly high risk. Current prevention and treatment approaches have failed to impact on the high rates of depression and new approaches are required. We have developed a novel intervention that addresses individual psychological needs in newly admitted residents, which is implemented in collaboration with residents and facility staff. The Program to Enhance Adjustment to Residential Living (PEARL) is a 5-session intervention based on Self-Determination Theory that aims to tailor care to enhance residents’ autonomy, competence and relations.
A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of PEARL in reducing depression in newly admitted nursing home residents, compared to a treatment as usual control condition. A total of 216 residents with normal cognition or mild-moderate cognitive impairment, living in 42 nursing homes in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study. The sample included 76 men and 140 women, aged 62-99 years (M = 85.5, SD = 7.3). The primary outcome was level of depressive symptoms, assessed using the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia at baseline and at 8, 16 (primary endpoint), and 31 weeks follow-up. Multi-level modelling, accounting for within-facility clustering and repeated assessments, was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention, employing an intention-to-treat approach.
At 16-weeks, fewer symptoms of depression were observed among those in the intervention group (M = 7.0, SD = 5.6) than in the control group (M = 8.6, SD = 6.5). Multi-level modelling of unadjusted data showed a significant condition (intervention, control) by time (T1, T2, T3) interaction (p = .021), indicating that the PEARL intervention led to a reduction in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. The treatment effect was maintained at 31 weeks follow-up (p = .004).
This study provides evidence that an intervention designed to address newly admitted residents’ individual psychological needs reduced symptoms of depression in subsequent months. This brief, simple intervention may be suitable for broad implementation across long-term care settings. However, future research to determine if the intervention can be implemented by trained facility staff in situ is warranted.
To institute facility-wide Kamishibai card (K-card) rounding for central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance bundle education and adherence and to evaluate its impact on bundle reliability and central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates.
Quality improvement project.
Inpatient units at a large, academic freestanding children’s hospital.
Data for inpatients with a CVC in place for ≥1 day between November 1, 2017 and October 31, 2018 were included.
A K-card was developed based on 7 core elements in our CVC maintenance bundle. During monthly audits, auditors used the K-cards to ask bedside nurses standardized questions and to conduct medical record documentation reviews in real time. Adherence to every bundle element was required for the audit to be considered “adherent.” We recorded bundle reliability prospectively, and we compared reliability and CLABSI rates at baseline and 1 year after the intervention.
During the study period, 2,321 K-card audits were performed for 1,051 unique patients. Overall maintenance bundle reliability increased significantly from 43% at baseline to 78% at 12 months after implementation (P < .001). The hospital-wide CLABSI rate decreased from 1.35 during the 12-month baseline period to 1.17 during the 12-month intervention period, but the change was not statistically significant (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–1.24; P = .41).
Hospital-wide CVC K-card rounding facilitated standardized data collection, discussion of reliability, and real-time feedback to nurses. Maintenance bundle reliability increased after implementation, accompanied by a nonsignificant decrease in the CLABSI rate.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this study is to examine implementation science and clinical outcomes of telemedicine ID consultation at a rural Missouri hospital. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pilot study, hybrid type 2, studying clinical outcomes (mortality, readmission, hospital transfer) and implementation outcomes assessed by survey and chart review (feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, fidelity to guideline-based care). Telemedicine ID consultations are carried out for patients at Missouri Baptist Sullivan Hospital (MBSH) with positive blood cultures and charts reviewed for 30 days after hospital discharge. Patients, physicians, and staff complete surveys for implementation outcomes. The practical, robust implementation and sustainability model (PRISM) was chosen as the framework for this study and its future scale-up. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 46 patients with positive blood cultures at MBSH, 20 of which were transferred or left from the ER before consultation could be offered. Eighteen patients had telemedicine ID consultation. The remaining 8 patients had contaminants in their blood cultures and therefore no consultation was offered. Of eligible patients not transferred, recruitment rate was 100% (18/18). Average total time per consult was 52.8 minutes on day 1, 8.5 minutes on day 2. 30-day mortality was 0%, 30-day readmission rate 5.5% (n = 1), hospital transfer rate 5.5% (n = 1). 13 patients and 9 providers completed the feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness survey with zero negative responses on any measure. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Telemedicine ID consultation at a single rural hospital has thus far been received as feasible, acceptable, and appropriate. Scale-up of this model of care remains to be studied.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) syncope management is extremely variable. We developed practice recommendations based on the validated Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) and outpatient cardiac monitoring strategy with physician input. Methods: We used a 2-step approach. Step-1: We pooled data from the derivation and validation prospective cohort studies (with adequate sample size) conducted at 11 Canadian sites (Sep 2010 to Apr 2018). Adults with syncope were enrolled excluding those with serious outcome identified during index ED evaluation. 30-day adjudicated serious outcomes were arrhythmic (arrhythmias, unknown cause of death) and non-arrhythmic (MI, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage)]. We compared the serious outcome proportion among risk categories using Cochran-Armitage test. Step-2: We conducted semi-structured interviews using observed risk to develop and refine the recommendations. We used purposive sampling of physicians involved in syncope care at 8 sites from Jun-Dec 2019 until theme saturation was reached. Two independent raters coded interviews using an inductive approach to identify themes; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Results: Of the 8176 patients (mean age 54, 55% female), 293 (3.6%; 95%CI 3.2-4.0%) experienced 30-day serious outcomes; 0.4% deaths, 2.5% arrhythmic, 1.1% non-arrhythmic outcomes. The serious outcome proportion significantly increased from low to high-risk categories (p < 0.001; overall 0.6% to 27.7%; arrhythmic 0.2% to 17.3%; non-arrhythmic 0.4% to 5.9% respectively). C-statistic was 0.88 (95%CI0.86–0.90). Non-arrhythmia risk per day for the first 2 days was 0.5% for medium-risk, 2% for high-risk and very low thereafter. We recruited 31 physicians (14 ED, 7 cardiologists, 10 hospitalists/internists). 80% of physicians agreed that low risk patients can be discharged without specific follow-up with inconsistencies around length of ED observation. For cardiac monitoring of medium and high-risk, 64% indicated that they don't have access; 56% currently admit high-risk patients and an additional 20% agreed to this recommendation. A deeper exploration led to following refinement: discharge without specific follow-up for low-risk, a shared decision approach for medium-risk and short course of hospitalization for high-risk patients. Conclusion: The recommendations were developed (with online calculator) based on in-depth feedback from key stakeholders to improve uptake during implementation.
Ethical issues around the use of integrative approaches in child and adolescent psychiatry arise in relation to diverse aspects of practice but especially in collaborative work with other disciplines. Child and adolescent psychiatrists work with nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychotherapists, family practitioners, paediatricians, those working in the juvenile justice system and educationists. Different ethical issues arise in relation to work with different disciplines and examples will be given. But there are common ethical issues arising from different standards of confidentiality and the communication of information as well as in the exercise of medical responsibility. Ethical issues can sometimes hinder the delivery of effective, evidence-based care. This is paradoxical for failure to deliver such care itself offends against ethical principles.
The measurement of thin film mechanical properties free from substrate influence remains one of the outstanding challenges in nanomechanics. Here, a technique based on indentation of a supported film with a flat punch whose diameter is many times the initial film thickness is introduced. This geometry generates a state of confined uniaxial strain for material beneath the punch, allowing direct access to intrinsic stress versus strain response. For simple elastic–plastic materials, this enables material parameters such as elastic modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress to be simultaneously determined from a single loading curve. The phenomenon of confined plastic yield has not been previously observed in thin films or homogeneous materials, which we demonstrate here for 170 -470 nm thick polystyrene (PS), polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and amorphous Selenium films on silicon. As well as performing full elastic -plastic parameter extraction for these materials at room temperature, we used the technique to study the variation of yield stress in PS to temperatures above the nominal glass transition of 100 °C.
Takeaway shops are more clustered around secondary than primary schools and UK planning policies to limit takeaways show poor implementation against international examples and good practice statements. A major concern is that, worldwide, there are no standardised measures used to measure the food environment around homes, schools, work or any other facilities. This study aims to examine the differences in using different methods to evaluate the food environment particularly around secondary schools in the Avon region in the UK. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to locate all schools and takeaways in the region and to measure the density and proximity scores, applying both road network and straight-line methods. In addition, the Hansen Index was used to measure the accessibility score of each schools to all takeaways in the region (not just the nearest). All of the nonparametric statistical analysis tests including Wilcoxon test, agreement (Kappa statistic) test and correlation test were carried out using Stata software version 15.0. It was observed that more than 50% of the schools had no takeaway shops within 200, 400, and 600 metres when the road network buffer was used. Statistical differences were observed between the road network and the straight-line methods. For example, the median of the difference between the straight-line and road network density within 1000 metres was 4.1 (CI 2.6, 5.9; P < 0.001). The median of the difference between the road network and straight-line proximity was 203.2 (CI 144.6, 261.9; P < 0.001). Also, the agreement between straight-line and road network densities within 800 (Kappa = 0.38) and 1000 (Kappa = 0.47) metres were fair and moderate, respectively. The agreement between both methods to measure the proximity was fair to moderate (Kappa = 0.40). In addition, the correlation results showed that both the straight-line and road network proximity were negatively correlated to the accessibility score measured. Our findings suggest that the 800 and 1000 metres road network density and proximity may be more appropriate to explore the real relationships between fast food accessibility and diet or health relationships. In addition, the Hansen index is another metric that may be used if the aim of the study is to consider multiple locations when calculating the accessibility score. The availability of best-practice methods would help to explore the food environment in a consistent way and therefore lead to the implementation of effective actions and policies targeting the food environments, particularly around secondary schools.
Placental weight is a valuable indicator of its function, predicting both pregnancy outcome and lifelong health. Population-based centile charts of weight-for-gestational-age and parity are useful for identifying extremes of placental weight but fail to consider maternal size. To address this deficit, a multiple regression model was fitted to derive coefficients for predicting normal placental weight using records from healthy pregnancies of nulliparous/multiparous women of differing height and weight (n = 107,170 deliveries, 37–43 weeks gestation). The difference between actual and predicted placental weight generated a z-score/individual centile for the entire cohort including women with pregnancy complications (n = 121,591). The association between maternal BMI and placental weight extremes defined by the new customised versus population-based standard was investigated by logistic regression, as was the association between low placental weight and pregnancy complications. Underweight women had a greater risk of low placental weight [<10thcentile, OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.66, 2.05)] and obese women had a greater risk of high placental weight [>90th centile, OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.88, 2.10)] using a population standard. After customisation, the risk of high placental weight in obese/morbidly obese women was attenuated [OR 1.17 (95% CI 1.09, 1.25)]/no longer significant, while their risk of low placental weight was 59%–129% higher (P < 0.001). The customised placental weight standard was more closely associated with stillbirth, hypertensive disease, placental abruption and neonatal death than the population standard. Our customised placental weight standard reveals higher risk of relative placental growth restriction leading to lower than expected birthweights in obese women, and a stronger association between low placental weight and pregnancy complications generally. Further, it provides an alternative tool for defining placental weight extremes with implications for the placental programming of chronic disease.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Using existing data from clinical registries to support clinical trials and other prospective studies has the potential to improve research efficiency. However, little has been reported about staff experiences and lessons learned from implementation of this method in pediatric cardiology.
We describe the process of using existing registry data in the Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study, report stakeholders’ perspectives, and provide recommendations to guide future studies using this methodology.
The Residual Lesion Score Study, a 17-site prospective, observational study, piloted the use of existing local surgical registry data (collected for submission to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Congenital Heart Surgery Database) to supplement manual data collection. A survey regarding processes and perceptions was administered to study site and data coordinating center staff.
Survey response rate was 98% (54/55). Overall, 57% perceived that using registry data saved research staff time in the current study, and 74% perceived that it would save time in future studies; 55% noted significant upfront time in developing a methodology for extracting registry data. Survey recommendations included simplifying data extraction processes and tailoring to the needs of the study, understanding registry characteristics to maximise data quality and security, and involving all stakeholders in design and implementation processes.
Use of existing registry data was perceived to save time and promote efficiency. Consideration must be given to the upfront investment of time and resources needed. Ongoing efforts focussed on automating and centralising data management may aid in further optimising this methodology for future studies.
The widespread use of herbicides in cropping systems has led to the evolution of resistance in major weeds. The resultant loss of herbicide efficacy is compounded by a lack of new herbicide sites of action, driving demand for alternative weed control technologies. While there are many alternative methods for control, identifying the most appropriate method to pursue for commercial development has been hampered by the inability to compare techniques in a fair and equitable manner. Given that all currently available and alternative weed control methods share an intrinsic energy consumption, the aim of this review was to compare methods based on energy consumption. Energy consumption was compared for chemical, mechanical, and thermal weed control technologies when applied as broadcast (whole-field) and site-specific treatments. Tillage systems, such as flex-tine harrow (4.2 to 5.5 MJ ha−1), sweep cultivator (13 to 14 MJ ha−1), and rotary hoe (12 to 17 MJ ha−1) consumed the least energy of broadcast weed control treatments. Thermal-based approaches, including flaming (1,008 to 4,334 MJ ha−1) and infrared (2,000 to 3,887 MJ ha−1), are more appropriate for use in conservation cropping systems; however, their energy requirements are 100- to 1,000-fold greater than those of tillage treatments. The site-specific application of weed control treatments to control 2-leaf-stage broadleaf weeds at a density of 5 plants m−2 reduced energy consumption of herbicidal, thermal, and mechanical treatments by 97%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Significantly, this site-specific approach resulted in similar energy requirements for current and alternative technologies (e.g., electrocution [15 to 19 MJ ha−1], laser pyrolysis [15 to 249 MJ ha−1], hoeing [17 MJ ha−1], and herbicides [15 MJ ha−1]). Using similar energy sources, a standardized energy comparison provides an opportunity for estimation of weed control costs, suggesting site-specific weed management is critical in the economically realistic implementation of alternative technologies.
On 16 July 2013, Simone Schlindwein, a German journalist, used her mobile phone to photograph a conflict-related image in the Democratic Republic of the Congo that later contributed to local riots and to her hasty exit across the border. From the ‘front’, she uploaded the photograph to her Twitter account and caused a melee of virtual and on-the-ground controversy that at record speed came to involve the United Nations, members of the Congolese diaspora, the Congolese army, the M23 rebel army propaganda office, and the residents of the region. This article starts from her image to ethnographically examine the resulting events and responses, both online and in the city of Goma. In so doing, it engages the heated regional debate as to whether the image was objectively captured or if the violence depicted was simply ‘playing for the camera’. Addressing the simultaneous online movement of the image through social media and news sites, the article argues that the combination of the socio-political climate, conflict and the uncontrollable narrative of the image created a perfect storm in which the entangled regional politics suddenly became visible.