To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An online training package providing a concise synthesis of the scientific data underpinning EU legislation on enrichment and tail-docking of pigs was produced in seven languages, with the aim of improving consistency of professional judgements regarding legislation compliance on farms. In total, 158 participants who were official inspectors, certification scheme assessors and advisors from 16 EU countries completed an initial test and an online training package. Control group participants completed a second identical test before, and Training group participants after, viewing the training. In Section 1 of the test participants rated the importance of modifying environmental enrichment defined in nine scenarios from 1 (not important) to 10 (very important). Training significantly increased participants’ overall perception of the need for change. Participants then rated nine risk factors for tail-biting from 1 (no risk) to 10 (high risk). After training scores were better correlated with risk rankings already described by scientists. Scenarios relating to tail-docking and management were then described. Training significantly increased the proportion of respondents correctly identifying that a farm without tail lesions should stop tail-docking. Finally, participants rated the importance of modifying enrichment in three further scenarios. Training increased ratings in all three. The pattern of results indicated that participants’ roles influenced scores but overall the training improved: i) recognition of enrichments that, by virtue of their type or use by pigs, may be insufficient to achieve legislation compliance; ii) knowledge on risk factors for tail-biting; and iii) recognition of when routine tail-docking was occurring.
This study aimed to develop a scientific and practical tool to be used to assess horse welfare after commercial transport over long journeys. A set of physical, behavioural and environmental measures was selected, covering welfare aspects of both transport and unloading procedures. The protocol was field-tested on 51 intra-EU commercial transports arriving at different sites in Italy. Univariate analysis was implemented to look for associations between the input variables (environmental hazards potentially affecting the animal well-being during long transports) and the outcome variables (direct evaluation of the animal condition). No severe welfare impairments were recorded (ie dead on arrival, severe injuries, non-ambulatory animals), while milder ones were more frequent at unloading (eg slipping; 36.7%, reluctance to move; 9.6%). Correlations emerged between ramp slope and falling; type of ramp floor and slipping; fast gait and the presence of gaps between the ramp and the floor. The horses’ behaviour was also related to the type of handling procedure used. The measures were repeatable and practical to apply and score during real-time unloading. This work provides a sound basis for a new and practical welfare assessment tool for horses travelling over long journeys. Careful and constant application of this protocol would provide stakeholders with the opportunity to track and monitor changes in the industry over time, as well as to identify high risk areas in transport routines.
Major Depressive (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are chronic relapsing condition in which mood episodes are interspersed with periods of euthymia. Impairments in Executive Attention (EA) are a trait characteristic of mood disorder that persists also during remission. Similarly prefrontal dysfunctions are crucial in the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (OCS), which are highly comorbid in both MDD and BD.
The aim of this study is to test a model in which deficits in EA mediate the relationship between the OCS and the relapse in a cohort of patients with MDD and BD.
Sixty-four euthymic subjects with BD and MDD performed the Attentional Network Task Revised (ANT-R), that gauges EA in a standard conflict task. Here we adopted a drift diffusion model to measure the task efficiency as the drift rate in incongruent trials. Patients also completed at baseline the YBOCS, a questionnaire that evaluate the severity of OCS. All the participants have been followed-up for up to 5 years and relapses have been recorded.
The association between OCS and time in euthymia was fully mediated by the EA so that greater OCS were associated with poorer executive functions (beta=-0.341; p=0.006) that in turn predicted a sooner relapse (beta=0.349; p=0.005). This held true even when controlling for classic predictors of recurrence such as previous episode distance, the duration of illness and medications.
Treatment targeting executive functions could hence be crucial in preventing relapses in subjects with mood disorders experiencing obsessive compulsive-symptoms.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by alternating episodes of high mood and low mood similar to depression. To differentiate BD patients from unipolar (UN) depressed patients remains a challenge and the clinical scales available failed to distinguish these 2 populations. ALCEDIAG developed EDIT-B, the first blood test able to make a differential diagnosis of BD. Based on RNA editing modifications measurement and AI, the test requires a simple blood draw and equipment available in most central laboratories. A first study on 160 UN and 95 BD patients allowed a differential diagnosis with an AUC of 0.935 and high specificity (Sp=84.6%) and sensitivity (Se=90.9%). A multicentric clinical study has been set up to validate these performances.
The objective of this project is to run a multicentric clinical study in Europe and assess the performances of the test.
The EDIT-B project, led by Alcediag, is supported by EIT-Health grant (European institute of Innovation and Technology) and gathers 4 clinical centers in 3 countries (France, Spain, Danemark), a CRO for the clinical study management (Aixial), a CRO for the development of a diagnostic kit (Veracyte), a diagnostic lab for molecular biology analyses (Synlab), and a regulatory company (PLG).
At the end of the study, the EDIT-B performance will be confirmed and the test will be CE-marked.
This test will address the needs of millions of patients suffering from misdiagnosis and therefore allow them to receive the correct treatment.
Get up to speed on the modelling, design, technologies, and applications of tunable circuits and reconfigurable mm-wave systems. Coverage includes smart antennas and frequency-agile RF components, as well as a detailed comparison of three key technologies for the design of tunable mm-wave circuits: CMOS, RF MEMS, and microwave liquid crystals, and measurement results of state-of-the-art prototypes. Numerous examples of tunable circuits and systems are included that can be practically implemented for the reader's own needs. Ideal for graduate students studying RF/microwave engineering, and researchers and engineers involved in circuit and system design for new communication platforms such as mm-wave 5G and beyond, high-throughput satellites in GSO, and future satellite constellations in MEO/LEO, as well as for automotive radars, security and biomedical mm-wave systems.
Nosocomial transmission of influenza is a major concern for infection control. We aimed to dissect transmission dynamics of influenza, including asymptomatic transmission events, in acute care.
Prospective surveillance study during 2 influenza seasons.
Volunteer sample of inpatients on medical wards and healthcare workers (HCWs).
Participants provided daily illness diaries and nasal swabs for influenza A and B detection and whole-genome sequencing for phylogenetic analyses. Contacts between study participants were tracked. Secondary influenza attack rates were calculated based on spatial and temporal proximity and phylogenetic evidence for transmission.
In total, 152 HCWs and 542 inpatients were included; 16 HCWs (10.5%) and 19 inpatients (3.5%) tested positive for influenza on 109 study days. Study participants had symptoms of disease on most of the days they tested positive for influenza (83.1% and 91.9% for HCWs and inpatients, respectively). Also, 11(15.5%) of 71 influenza-positive swabs among HCWs and 3 (7.9%) of 38 influenza-positive swabs among inpatients were collected on days without symptoms; 2 (12.5%) of 16 HCWs and 2 (10.5%) of 19 inpatients remained fully asymptomatic. The secondary attack rate was low: we recorded 1 transmission event over 159 contact days (0.6%) that originated from a symptomatic case. No transmission event occurred in 61 monitored days of contacts with asymptomatic influenza-positive individuals.
Influenza in acute care is common, and individuals regularly shed influenza virus without harboring symptoms. Nevertheless, both symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission events proved rare. We suggest that healthcare-associated influenza prevention strategies that are based on preseason vaccination and barrier precautions for symptomatic individuals seem to be effective.
To assess influenza symptoms, adherence to mask use recommendations, absenteesm and presenteeism in acute care healthcare workers (HCWs) during influenza epidemics.
The TransFLUas influenza transmission study in acute healthcare prospectively followed HCWs prospectively over 2 consecutive influenza seasons. Symptom diaries asking for respiratory symptoms and adherence with mask use recommendations were recorded on a daily basis, and study participants provided midturbinate nasal swabs for influenza testing.
In total, 152 HCWs (65.8% nurses and 13.2% physicians) were included: 89.1% of study participants reported at least 1 influenza symptom during their study season and 77.8% suffered from respiratory symptoms. Also, 28.3% of HCW missed at least 1 working day during the study period: 82.6% of these days were missed because of symptoms of influenza illness. Of all participating HCWs, 67.9% worked with symptoms of influenza infection on 8.8% of study days. On 0.3% of study days, symptomatic HCWs were shedding influenza virus while at work. Among HCWs with respiratory symptoms, 74.1% adhered to the policy to wear a mask at work on 59.1% of days with respiratory symptoms.
Respiratory disease is frequent among HCWs and imposes a significant economic burden on hospitals due to the number of working days lost. Presenteesm with respiratory illness, including influenza, is also frequent and poses a risk for patients and staff.
INTERMED is an instrument to assess bio-psycho-social case complexity in general health care by focusing on past, present and future health needs/risks of patients. It consists of a structured interview defining 20 variables and related anchor points. The total score ranges from 0 to 60, reflecting the level of complexity and the related care needs/risks. The aim of this work was to assess preliminary the effectiveness of a training program on the clinical use of INTERMED.
After a group training on the use of INTERMED carried out between April and September 2009, the method was applied to 30 female patients aged between 20 and 65, subsequently referring to three clinical settings: a GP clinic; a psychiatry day-care clinic; a CLP out-patient clinic. Demographic and clinical data were collected, together with administration of HADS and WHOQoL-bref.
The mean INTERMED score was 20.8, borderline as to definition of complex cases. Patients from the GP clinic and in the CLP setting scored lower (respectively 16.5 and 18.2) than patients from the psychiatric day-clinic (27.8), suggesting that the presence of severe psychiatric disturbances might contribute to increasing the level of case-complexity. Concordance with results at HADS and WHOQoL was high.
A clinical practice in the use of INTERMED after the theoretical phase of the training process is necessary to reinforce effectiveness of the training. These preliminary positive results will hopefully open the way to a wider diffusion of this tool in clinical practice in the area of Modena.
INTERMED is an instrument to assess bio-psycho-social case complexity in general health care by focusing on past, present and future health needs and risks of patients. It consists in a structured interview defining 20 variables and related anchor points. The total score ranges from 0 to 60, reflecting the level of complexity and the related care needs/risks. The aim of this work was to describe the training process on the use of INTERMED and to assess its effectiveness.
A training group of 9 subjects had two-hour meetings twice a month between April and September 2009. After introductory sessions on theoretical aspects and inter-trainee simulations on interviewing and scoring techniques, students were assigned the task of producing video-recorded clinical material, which was used to comment on interviewing skills and practice on scoring. Individual and consensus scores were collected at the beginning and at the end of the training and compared statistically by means of Cohen's kappa.
Motivation and involvement of students in the training was high (participation was on a voluntary basis during extra-work hours), as satisfaction. Agreement between individual and consensus scores was high already at the beginning of the training (Cohen's kappa mean value of 0.80) and slightly improved during the course.
The training process gave positive results both on the quantitative and the qualitative sides of evaluation. A six-month 25-hour training period is a reasonable time for learning how to master the instrument, although it needs to be followed by the clinical practice.