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Social isolation and emotional isolation, i.e. loneliness, have been associated with dementia or cognitive decline. In contrast, the relationship of restriction of physical and instrumental activities of daily living to cognitive decline and dementia has been less studied.
We examined multiple quality of life (QoL) indicators, including isolation and restriction of activities, utilizing two validated scales in elders without dementia to determine their associations with cognitive decline and incident dementia that were followed longitudinally over 6 years. We comprehensively controlled for other symptom constellations, including depression and anergia.
A large multi-ethnic prospective study was conducted in northern Manhattan, NYC.
An ethnically diverse sample of 855 non-demented individuals at baseline participated.
The following QoL scales were utilized: Restriction, Anergia, Isolation, Loneliness, and Affective Suffering.
Both Restriction (HR = 2.22, 95% CI [1.42, 3.47], P < .001) and Isolation (HR = 1.78, 95% CI [1.17, 2.70], P = 0.007) were associated with episodic memory and incident dementia, controlling for age, sex, and education. Loneliness and Affective Suffering (depression) were not associated with these outcomes (P’s > .1) with both Restriction and Isolation in the same model for the prediction of dementia, only Restriction remained significant (HR = 1.97, 95% CI [1.24, 3.14], P = 0.004). In cross-lagged panel analyses, Restriction and Isolation had reciprocal influences (P’s < .001), indicating that Restriction at the previous time point influenced current Isolation. Importantly, Restriction (but not Isolation) and Selective Reminding total recall memory demonstrated highly significant direct and reciprocal influences over time (P’s < .001).
Restriction and Isolation were associated with incident dementia. Restriction played a more prominent role in its impact on memory decline. The development of these impairments in QoL, particularly Restriction, may provide warning signs of future cognitive decline and dementia and provide multiple and novel avenues for therapeutic interventions with the goal of delaying the development of cognitive decline and dementia.
Mood and anxiety disorders are common in youth and are associated with reduced quality of life and high costs. Access to effective treatment is limited due to long waitlists, high costs and perceived social stigma. Given the high prevalence and treatment barriers, there is a need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions.
Psychoeducational interventions are inexpensive, easily administered and more accessible than conventional interventions. There is some evidence that these are effective in treating or preventing mental disorders.
To compare knowledge acquired by participants via email or live psychoeducation groups, to measure symptom change and to compare effectiveness of each modality.
Psychoeducation (live or via email) in multifamily groups will be offered. Forty participants in each group will be enrolled. There will be six 40-minute sessions. Primary outcome measures are: change in parental knowledge about the child's disorder and level of expressed emotion in the parent-child relationship. Measures are Understanding of Mood Disorders Questionnaire and Expressed Emotion Adjective Checklist. To measure changes in symptoms the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children will be used. Questionnaires will be administered before, after and at 4 months.
Data entered in Excel format. ANOVA used to compare effectiveness of group versus email psychoeducation. Both methods equally effective in delivering psychoeducation.
Ontario has long waitlists for youth with mood and anxiety disorders. Psychoeducation is effective in increasing understanding of illness, improving symptoms and problem-solving skills of the family. Multifamily group versus email psychoeducation will facilitate access.
While studies suggest that nutritional supplementation may reduce aggressive behavior in children, few have examined their effects on specific forms of aggression. This study tests the primary hypothesis that omega-3 (ω-3), both alone and in conjunction with social skills training, will have particular post-treatment efficacy for reducing childhood reactive aggression relative to baseline.
In this randomized, double-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, factorial trial, a clinical sample of 282 children with externalizing behavior aged 7–16 years was randomized into ω-3 only, social skills only, ω-3 + social skills, and placebo control groups. Treatment duration was 6 months. The primary outcome measure was reactive aggression collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, with antisocial behavior as a secondary outcome.
Children in the ω-3-only group showed a short-term reduction (at 3 and 6 months) in self-report reactive aggression, and also a short-term reduction in overall antisocial behavior. Sensitivity analyses and a robustness check replicated significant interaction effects. Effect sizes (d) were small, ranging from 0.17 to 0.31.
Findings provide some initial support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing reactive aggression over and above standard care (medication and parent training), but yield only preliminary and limited support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing overall externalizing behavior in children. Future studies could test further whether ω-3 shows promise in reducing more reactive, impulsive forms of aggression.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether significant difference exists on radiation dose delivered to organs at risks in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) verification using three predefined scanning modes, namely fine (2 mm), normal (4 mm) and coarse (6 mm). This will provide information for the imaging protocol of tomotherapy for the left breast.
Materials and methods
Organ doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) placed within a female Rando phantom for MVCT imaging. Kruskal–Wallis test was conducted with p<0·05 to evaluate the significant difference between the three MVCT scanning modes.
Statistically significant difference existed in organ absorbed dose between different scan mode selections (p<0·001). Relative to the normal scan selection (4 mm), the absorbed dose to the organs of interests can be scaled down by 0·7 and scaled up by 2·1 for coarse (6 mm) and fine scans (2 mm) respectively.
Optimisation of imaging protocols is of paramount importance to keep the radiation exposure ‘as low as reasonably achievable’. The recommendation of undergoing daily coarse mode for MVCT verification in breast tomotherapy not only mitigates the radiation exposure to normal tissues, but also trims the scan-acquisition time.
The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a unique millimeter VLBI system which is consisted of three 21 m telescopes with relatively short baselines. We present the preliminary results of simultaneous monitoring observations of the 22.2 GHz H2O and 43.1/42.8/86.2/129.3 GHz SiO masers based on the KVN Key Science Project (KSP). We obtained the astrometrically registered maps of the H2O and SiO masers toward nine evolved stars using the source frequency phase referencing method (SFPR). The SFPR maps of the H2O and SiO masers enabled us to investigate the spatial structure and kinematics from the SiO to H2O maser regions including the development of an outward motion from the ring-like or elliptical structures of SiO masers to the asymmetric structures of the 22.2 GHz H2O maser features. In particular, the 86.2/129.3 GHz SiO (v=1, J=2–1 and J=3–2) masers were clearly imaged toward several objects for the first time. The SiO v=1, J=3–2 maser shows different distributions compared to those of the SiO v=1, 2, J=1–0 and v=1, J=2–1 masers implying a different physical condition.
We report on the astrometric registration of VLBI images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic Proto-Planetary Nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the KVN and Source/Frequency Phase Referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the AGB star, which drives the bi-lobe structure with the water masers in the out-flow.
Thermal plasma wind tunnels with power of 0.4 MW and 2.4 MW have been constructed at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) in Korea. This facility is capable of producing a heat flux greater than 10 MW/m2, a level that is relevant for testing thermal protection materials that are used for re-entry vehicles in space transportation. A segmented arc plasma torch was adopted as a plasma source; this was designed to have high thermal efficiency and long life, and to produce a supersonic plasma flow with enthalpy greater than 10 MJ/kg. We investigated the characteristics of the supersonic plasma flow using intrusive and non-intrusive diagnostic systems. Ablation characteristics of potential thermal protection materials such as carbon/carbon composites and graphite were investigated with the plasma wind tunnel. Cracks and pores in the materials accelerated the erosion. For carbon/carbon composites, the pores grew and the cracks which occurred at the interfaces between the carbon fibres and the matrix propagated, while for the graphite, the erosion started at the pores and peeled off the surface.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3–BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease.
The East Asian-Australasian Flyway supports the greatest diversity and populations of migratory birds globally, as well as the highest number of threatened migratory species of any flyway, including passerines (15 species). However it is also one of the most poorly understood migration systems, and little is known about the populations and ecology of the passerine migrants that breed, stop over and winter in the habitats along this flyway. We provide the first flyway-wide review of diversity, ecology, and conservation issues relating to 170 species of long-distance and over 80 short-distance migrants from 32 families. Recent studies of songbird migration movements and ecology is limited, and is skewed towards East Asia, particularly Mainland China, Taiwan, Russia, Japan and South Korea. Strong evidence of declines exists for some species, e.g. Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola, but tends to be fragmentary, localised or anecdotal for many others. More species have small breeding ranges (< 250,000 km2) and/or are dependent on tropical forests as wintering habitat than those in any other Eurasian migratory system, and are thus more vulnerable to habitat loss and degradation throughout their ranges. Poorly regulated hunting for food and the pet trade, invasive species and collisions with man-made structures further threaten migratory songbirds at a number of stop-over or wintering sites, while climate change and habitat loss may be of increasing concern in the breeding ranges. A key conservation priority is to carry out intensive field surveys across the region while simultaneously tapping into citizen science datasets, to identify important stop-over and wintering sites, particularly for poorly-known or globally threatened species across South-East Asia and southern China for targeted conservation actions. Additionally, the advent of miniaturised tracking technology, molecular and isotopic techniques can provide novel insights into migration connectivity, paths and ecology for species in this migration system, complementing data from banding exercises and observation-based surveys, and could prove useful in informing conservation priorities. However, until most states along the East Asian-Australasian flyway ratify the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and other cross-boundary treaties, the relative lack of cross-boundary cooperation, coordination and information sharing in the region will continue to present a stumbling block for effective conservation of migratory passerines.
Periodic arrays of low-aspect ratio silicon nanopillars strongly reduce front surface reflection over a broad wavelength range. In this study, we numerically simulate the reflection of light for thick crystalline silicon substrates nanostructured through a combination of silica nanosphere lithography (SNL) and metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE), producing ordered arrays of nanopillars with hexagonal periodicity. Using statistical methods, we show that the simulated measurements are in good agreement with the spectrophotometry measurements of the fabricated nanopillars.
The band gap energy of the TiO2 photocatalytic is high at 3.2 eV. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation (<388nm) is required for the photocatalytic application. The lowering the band gap energy of TiO2 and enlarging light absorbing area are effective ways to enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the morphology and crystal structure of nanosized TiO2 considerably influences its photocatalytic behavior.
In this study, sodium titanate nanorods were formed using an alkali-treatment and were heat treated at different temperatures. The photoelectrochemical properties of sodium titanate nanorods was measured as a function of heat treatment temperature. The nanorods were prepared on the surface of Ti disk with a diameter of 15mm and a thickness of 3mm. Ti disk was immersed in 5 M NaOH aqueous solution at a temperature of 60 °C for 24 h. Morphology of sodium titanate nanorods was observed using FE-SEM. Crystal structure of sodium titanate nanorods was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. Photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate photoelectrochemical properties of sodium titanate nanorods. The thin amorphous sodium titanate layer was formed during alkali-treatment. The sodium titanate layer was changed to nanorods after heat treatment at a temperature of 700 °C. The thickness and length of sodium titanate nanorods obtained at 700 °C were around 100 nm and 1μm, respectively. The crystal structure of sodium titanate was identified with Na2Ti6O13. Above 900 °C, the morphology of nanorods changed to agglomerated shape and the thickness of nanorods increased to 1 μm. The lowest value of PL was obtained at a temperature of 700 °C, while nonalkali treated specimen showed the highest value of PL. EIS revealed that polarization resistance at interface between sodium titanate nanorods and electrolyte was increased with increasing heat treatment temperature.
Background and aims: For patients with a severe brain injury there is no objective physiotherapy assessment tool that is responsive to the incremental changes in motor recovery in the acute stage. The aims of this study were to identify the items of neuro-motor recovery and scoring criteria for the Acute Brain Injury Physiotherapy Assessment (ABIPA) and determine responsiveness to change and concurrent validity against accepted standard measures of consciousness and physical function in the severe brain injury population.
Method: The literature was searched and an expert consensus panel of experienced clinical physiotherapists informed item selection and developed practical assessment guidelines. The ABIPA was investigated for responsiveness to change and concurrent validity against the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Clinical Outcome Variable Scale (COVS) and Motor Assessment Scale (MAS). Eleven patients (9 males; cohort 41 ± 18 years) with moderate/severe brain injury were recruited, and assessed on days 1, 3, 7 and then weekly until discharge.
Results: The ABIPA demonstrated good to excellent correlations overall with the GCS (rho > .76, p ≤ .001), COVS (rho > .82, p ≤ .001) and MAS (rho > 0.66, p ≤ .001). On day 3, the ABIPA showed the greatest responsiveness to change (standardised response means (SRM) > .83) compared to other measures (SRMs < .77). At discharge all tools demonstrated change in neuro-motor recovery.
Conclusions: The ABIPA is a promising tool for detecting incremental changes in neuro-motor recovery early after severe brain injury.
Cell aging and state-of-health (SOH) estimation is widely acknowledged as a challenge in state-of-the-art battery management systems deployed today. Towards addressing this issue, gas evolution monitoring from side reactions using embedded sensors was investigated as a parameter of interest for SOH. Li-ion battery cells with a Mn-rich chemistry were subjected to overcharge experiments. Two cells were repeatedly overcharged and the evolution of gaseous CO2 was measured using fiber optic colorimetric sensors, which were incorporated and sealed into the side pouch of the battery pouch cells. A ratiometric read-out principle has been employed for the optical measurements. Initial results indicate a non-reversible gas evolution inside the battery cells during overcharge, wherein the onset of gas evolution is delayed in time relative to the overcharge condition. An increase in the sensing signal can be observed over a time span of 40 – 50 minutes during each overcharge cycle. This investigation provides real-time information on the dynamics of gas evolution in Li-ion pouch cells during overcharge experiments and allows for an early detection of potentially hazardous cell states.