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Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.) is an important forage species in vast rangelands/grasslands of India and several tropical countries owing to its high biomass yield, good nutritional quality and wide adaptation. Evaluation of the existing natural variation and selection of desirable genotypes is the most plausible breeding method for this apomictic and polyploid grass. Developing a core sub-set to narrow down the number of germplasm required for future genetic studies is also pertinent. The present study involved characterization of 152 diverse M. maximus germplasm representing collections from different agro-ecological zones of India as well as those procured from Africa and Brazil; and development of a core sub-set. Nineteen metric, seven non-metric and nine nutritive traits together established the presence of wide variability among the genotypes. Clustering of the genotypes resulted in eight distinct clusters. The largest cluster included genotypes from Ethiopia, north India, north-western India, south India and north-eastern hill region, thus represented the highest diversity. Eleven of the total 26 Ethiopian genotypes clustered together. Non-metric morphological traits effectively differentiated the genotypes, and were associated with nutritional quality also. Genotypes which flowered once in a year showed slightly better crude protein and digestibility. The clusters were further sub-clustered and representatives were selected to develop the core sub-set of 23 genotypes comprising 20 indigenous and three exotic accessions. Comparison of the range of diversity and mean value for traits as obtained in the core sub-set and that in the total germplasm indicated successful capturing of maximum diversity in the core sub-set.
This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of different methods to activate buffalo A + B and C + D quality oocytes parthenogenetically and to study the in vitro developmental competence of oocytes and expression of some important genes at the different developmental stages of parthenotes. The percentage of A + B oocytes (62.16 ± 5.06%, range 53.8–71.3%) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with that of C + D oocytes (37.8 ± 5.00%, range 28.6–46.1%) retrieved from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries. Among all combinations, ethanol activation followed by culture in research vitro cleave medium gave the highest cleavage and blastocyst yields for both A + B and C + D grade oocytes. Total cell numbers, inner cell mass/trophectoderm ratio and apoptotic index of A + B group blastocysts were significantly different (P < 0.05) from their C + D counterpart. To determine the status of expression patterns of developmentally regulated genes, the expression of cumulus–oocyte complexes, fertilization, developmental competence and apoptotic-related genes were also studied in parthenogenetically produced buffalo embryos at different stages, and indicated that the differential expression patterns of the above genes had a role in early embryonic development.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
There has been little reported on the transoral reconstructive options following salvage transoral robotic surgery. This paper describes the facial artery musculomucosal flap as a method to introduce vascularised tissue to a previously irradiated resection bed.
A facial artery musculomucosal flap was used to reconstruct the lateral pharyngeal wall in 13 patients undergoing salvage transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Outcomes recorded include flap and donor site complications, length of stay, and swallowing and speech outcomes.
There were no immediate or late flap complications, or cases of delayed wound healing in this series. There were two facial artery musculomucosal related complications requiring surgical management: one bleed from the facial artery musculomucosal donor site and one minor surgical revision. Healing of the flap onto the resection bed was successful in all cases.
The facial artery musculomucosal flap provides a suitable transoral local flap option for selected patients undergoing salvage transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal malignancies.
Delivery by cesarean section (CS) is the most common surgical operation performed in the world. Cesarean rates vary across countries, ranging from over 50% in South American countries such as Chile, Argentina, and Brazil to over 32% in the United States and 25% of all deliveries in the United Kingdom.
We describe a study of the E–W-trending South Wagad Fault (SWF) complex at the eastern part of the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) in Western India. This basin was filled during Late Cretaceous time, and is presently undergoing tectonic inversion. During the late stage of the inversion cycle, all the principal rift faults were reactivated as transpressional strike-slip faults. The SWF complex shows wrench geometry of an anastomosing en échelon fault, where contractional and extensional segments and offsets alternate along the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ). Geometric analysis of different segments of the SWF shows that several conjugate faults, which are a combination of R synthetic and R’ antithetic, propagate at a short distance along the PDZ and interact, generating significant fault slip partitioning. Surface morphology of the fault zone revealed three deformation zones: a 500 m to 1 km wide single fault zone; a 5–6 km wide double fault zone; and a c. 500 m wide diffuse fault zone. The single fault zone is represented by a higher stress accumulation which is located close to the epicentre of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. The double fault zone represents moderate stress at releasing bends bounded by two fault branches. The diffuse fault zone represents a low-stress zone where several fault branches join together. Our findings are well corroborated with the available geological and seismological data.
The acceleration of an electron beam by surface plasma waves (SPW), in the presence of external magnetic field parallel to surface and perpendicular to direction of propagation of SPW has been studied. This wave propagating along the
-axis is excited using Kretschmann geometry, having maximum amplitude at the metal–vacuum interface. Equations of motion have been solved for electron energy and trajectory. The electron gains and retains energy in the form of cyclotron oscillations due to the combined effect of the static magnetic field and SPW field. The energy gained by the beam increases with the strength of magnetic field and laser intensity. In the present scheme, electron beams can achieve ~15 KeV energy for the SPW amplitude A1 = 1.6 × 1011 V/m, plasma frequency ωp = 1.3 × 1016 rad/s and cyclotron frequency ωc/ωp = 0.003.
An obliquely incident high-power laser (ω0, k0z) on the metallic surface can resonantly excite a surface plasma wave (SPW) (ω1, k1z) and a quasi-electrostatic plasma wave (ω, kz) inside the skin layer at the phase-matching conditions of frequency ω1 = ω − ω0 and wave number k1z = kz − k0z. The oscillating electrons in the skin layer couples with the seed SPW and exert non-linear ponderomotive force on electrons at the frequency of quasi-static mode. Density perturbations due to quasi-static mode and ponderomotive force associate with the motion of electrons (due to incident laser) and give rise to a non-linear current by feedback mechanism. At ω/kz ~ vF (where vF is the Fermi velocity of metal) this non-linear current is responsible for the growth of SPW. The maximum growth of the present process (≅1.5 × 1012 s−1) is achieved at incident angle θ = 42° for laser frequency ω0 = 2 × 1015 rad/s. Growth of SPW enhances from 1.62 × 1011 to ≅1.5 × 1012 s−1 as the magnetic field changes from 12 to 24 MG. The excited SPW can be utilized for surface heating and diagnostics purpose.
The north-western Himalaya is one of the rich repositories of wheat genetic resources because of the preponderance of locally developed traditional crop varieties owing to high agro-climatic heterogeneity and local socio-cultural diversity. In the present study, 100 wheat landraces of this diversity rich region were evaluated for variability in physical parameters of seed to understand the basis of resistance against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. The evaluation was based on the parameter of growth index (GI) of S. oryzae in different landraces. GI was correlated with different quantitative physical seed parameters, viz. hardness, length, width, length × width, test weight and qualitative parameter seed colour were studied to work out if these were related to resistance/susceptibility. Based on the parameter of GI, the six landraces viz. IC266831, IC266872, IC393109, IC392578, IC444217 and IC589276 were identified as resistant. Correlation coefficients between GI of S. oryzae and physical parameters of wheat landraces indicated that GI had significant positive relation with length × width (r = +0.573) and test weight (r = +0.549) indicated that small seeds confer resistance to S. oryzae. Also significant negative relation (r = −0.457) with GI of S. oryzae and seed hardness, indicated that hard seeds were relatively more resistant to S. oryzae.
In the present study, oocytes retrieved from cross bred Karan Fries cows by ovum pick-up technique were graded into Group 1 and Group 2, based on the morphological appearance of the individual cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). To analyze whether the developmental potential of the COCs bears a relation to morphological appearance, relative expression of a panel of genes associated with; (a) cumulus–oocyte interaction (Cx43, Cx37, GDF9 and BMP15), (b) fertilization (ZP2 and ZP3), (c) embryonic development (HSF1, ZAR1 and bFGF) and (d) apoptosis and survival (BAX, BID and BCL-XL, MCL-1, respectively) was studied at two stages: germinal vesicle (GV) stage and after in vitro maturation. The competence was further corroborated by evaluating the embryonic progression of the presumed zygotes obtained from fertilization of the graded COCs. The gene expression profile and development rate in pooled A and B grade (Group 1) COCs and pooled C and D grade (Group 2) COCs were determined and compared according to the original grades. The results of the study demonstrated that the morphologically characterized Group 2 COCs showed significantly (P<0.05) lower expression for most of the genes related to cumulus–oocyte interplay, fertilization and embryonic development, both at GV stage as well as after maturation. Group 1 COCs also showed greater expression of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-XL and MCL1) both at GV stage and after maturation, while pro-apoptotic genes (BAX and BID) showed significantly (P<0.05) elevated expression in poor quality COCs at both the stages. The cleavage rate in Group 1 COCs was significantly higher than that of Group 2 (74.46±7.06 v. 31.57±5.32%). The development of the presumed zygotes in Group 2 oocytes proceeded up to 8- to 16-cell stages only, while in Group 1 it progressed up to morulae (35.38±7.11%) and blastocyst stages (9.70±3.15%), indicating their better developmental potential.
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is an important fruit crop of the Thar Desert of India. About 330 accessions and cultivars collected from various parts of India are currently being maintained at a farm in the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture. Utilization of such a large collection of germplasm for breeding and crop improvement is difficult. Therefore, in the present study, using a heuristic approach based on phenotypic characters, we identified 52 accessions that represented a core collection, with a coverage of 100% and a coincidence rate of 98.1%. No significant difference was observed with respect to either the Shannon–Weaver or the Nei diversity index for qualitative traits, mean values and ranges for quantitative traits or clustering patterns between the core and whole collections. The core collection represents the entire range of diversity with minimum redundancy and should be useful for the conservation and utilization of Z. mauritiana germplasm.
Independent outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) infection and sporadic cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been recorded in the metropolitan city of Delhi on several occasions in the past. However, during a recent 2010 arboviral outbreak in Delhi many cases turned negative for DENV. This prompted us to use duplex reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (D-RT–PCR) to establish the aetiology of dengue/chikungunya through sequencing of CprM and E1 genes of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Interestingly, for the first time, both DENV and CHIKV co-circulated simultaneously and in equally dominant proportion during the post-monsoon period of 2010. DENV-1 genotype III and the East Central South African genotype of CHIKV were associated with post-monsoon spread of these viruses.
Ludwigia is an important broadleaf weed of direct-seeded rice in Asia. Crop interference that relies on shading may have potential as a component of integrated weed management strategies but it requires understanding the extent to which rice can interfere with weed growth and how these weeds may respond. The growth of ludwigia was studied when grown alone and in competition with 4 and 12 rice (cv. IR72) plants. Rice interference reduced ludwigia height, number of branches, and shoot and root biomass. However, ludwigia showed the ability to reduce the effects of rice interference by increasing leaf weight ratio, increasing stem and leaf biomass in the upper half of the plant, and increasing specific stem length. At 11 wk after seeding, for example, ludwigia grown with 12 rice plants had 38% greater leaf weight ratio compared to plants grown alone. When grown with 12 rice plants, the weed had 82% of its leaf biomass in upper half of the plant compared to only 25% in weeds grown alone. The results showed that ludwigia responded to rice interference with a combination of adaptations typical of many weed species. Despite such plasticity, the control of ludwigia may be achieved by dense rice stands and increasing interference.
Acute pain assessment and management in trauma victims is often overlooked in emergency department (ED). Visual analogue scale is the preferred scale for assessment and management of pain however, its role in a busy ED is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of verbal and visual analogue scale among emergency care providers.
Emergency caregivers were instructed to use both pain scales wherever feasible for assessment, management, and monitoring of pain in 100 non-consecutive alert patients. A separate, pre-tested survey questionnaire addressing the feasibility of each pain scales was surveyed among emergency care providers (emergency physicians, nursing staff). A Likert scale (1 to 5) was assessed for cooperativeness, availability of time for assessment, the format, the peak period feasibility, the monitoring ease and the amount of work load. Binary scale (yes and no) was used to measure the overall utility in assessment and management of pain.
Out of 100 patients enrolled, the verbal analogue score was used in all patients and visual analogue score was used in 30 patients. The average Likert scale score for verbal analogue score questionnaire was 1.7 and the average Likert scale score for visual analogue score questionnaire was 3.9. On the overall utility both scales were found to be useful in all patients.
Both the scales were found to be useful in overall assessment and management of pain. However, there was a favorable trend towards using verbal analogue scale among emergency care providers.
This paper presents an investigation of the excitation of a Tera hertz (THz) radiation by nonlinear interaction of a circularly polarized high power laser beam and density ripple in collisionless magneto plasma. The ponderomotive force due to the nonlinear interaction between the laser and density ripple generates a nonlinear current at a difference frequency. If the appropriate phase matching conditions are satisfied and the frequency of the ripple is appropriate, then this difference frequency can be brought in the THz range. Filamentation (self focusing) of a circularly polarized beam propagating along the direction of ambient magnetic field in plasma is first investigated within paraxial ray approximation. The beam gets focused when the initial power of the laser beam is greater than its critical power. Resulting localized beam couples with the pre-existing density ripple to produce a nonlinear current driving the THz radiation. Analytical expressions for the beam width of the laser beam, electric vector of the THz wave have been obtained. By changing the strength of the magnetic field, one can enhance or suppress the THz emission. For typical laser beam and plasma parameters with the incident laser power flux = 1014 W/cm2, laser beam radius (r0) = 40 µm, laser frequency (ω0) = 1014 rad/s and plasma density (n0) = 3 × 1018 cm−3, normalized ripple density amplitude (μ) = 0.3, the produced THz emission can be at the level of Giga watt in power.
To our knowledge, no comprehensive, interdisciplinary initiatives have been taken to examine the role of genetic variants on patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. The overall objective of this paper is to describe the establishment of an international and interdisciplinary consortium, the GENEQOL Consortium, which intends to investigate the genetic disposition of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes. We have identified five primary patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes as initial targets: negative psychological affect, positive psychological affect, self-rated physical health, pain, and fatigue. The first tangible objective of the GENEQOL Consortium is to develop a list of potential biological pathways, genes and genetic variants involved in these quality-of-life outcomes, by reviewing current genetic knowledge. The second objective is to design a research agenda to investigate and validate those genes and genetic variants of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes, by creating large datasets. During its first meeting, the Consortium has discussed draft summary documents addressing these questions for each patient-reported quality-of-life outcome. A summary of the primary pathways and robust findings of the genetic variants involved is presented here. The research agenda outlines possible research objectives and approaches to examine these and new quality-of-life domains. Intriguing questions arising from this endeavor are discussed. Insight into the genetic versus environmental components of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes will ultimately allow us to explore new pathways for improving patient care. If we can identify patients who are susceptible to poor quality of life, we will be able to better target specific clinical interventions to enhance their quality of life and treatment outcomes.
This paper presents the effect of ripple on the plasma wave excitation process and acceleration of electrons in a laser produced plasma. The plasma wave is generated by the beating of two coaxial lasers of frequencies ω1 and ω2, such that ω1-ω2≅ωp. One of the main laser beams also has intensity spikes. The nonlinearity due to the relativistic mass variation depends not only on the intensity of one laser beam but also on the second laser beam. Therefore the behavior of the first laser beam affects the second laser beam, hence cross-focusing takes place. Owing to the interaction of ripple and the main laser beams, the ripple grows inside the plasma. The behavior of the ripple in the plasma affects the excitation of the electron plasma wave as well as the electron acceleration. The amplitude of the electron plasma wave and the electron energy are calculated, in the presence of ripple.