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Ammonia was searched in the direction of 46 sources placed in the southern hemisphere where H2CO or H2O was detected previously. Observations were carried out at Itapetinga Radio Observatory, Atibaia, Brazil using a 13.7 m paraboloid. The receiver used for these observations had a K-band ruby travelling wave maser as a preamplifier and the system temperature ranged from 250 to 300K. All sources were observed at least twice, each observation lasting for 30 minutes. The filter bank used consisted of 47 contiguous channels with 100 kHz bandwidth. Results are presented on Table 1 — Positive results and Table 2 — Negative results.
Recent progress is reviewed in describing the physical processes of star cluster formation, from the viewpoint of theoretical models and numerical simulations. In many studies, supersonic turbulent flows structure the gas into a network of clumps, filaments, and cores. Self-gravity drives star formation, moderated by turbulence, magnetic fields, and stellar feedback. Recent models and simulations describe the core mass function, the protostar mass function, and the star-formation rate. Several simulations indicate similar protostar birthrates, a mass advantage for firstborn protostars, and accretion rates that are superthermal and nearly constant. Recently observed core-filament systems with sonic line widths and parsec lengths present challenges for turbulent models.
Varian RapidArc is a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) that obtains a conformal dose around the desired structure by employing variable gantry speed, dose rate and dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) speed as the gantry rotates about machine isocenter. This study is meant to build upon previous research by Ling et al. by completing the tests with an in vivo dosimetric device attached to the linac gantry and a 2D ionisation chamber array with an isocentric gantry mount.
Materials and methods
Two PTW detectors, seven29 array with gantry mount and DAVID, were attached to the linear accelerator gantry, allowing each device to remain perpendicular to the beam at all gantry angles. Three tests for RapidArc evaluation were performed on these devices including: dose rate and gantry speed variation, DMLC speed and dose rate variation and DMLC position accuracy. The reproducibility of the arc data was also reported.
A picket fence plan varying dose rates (111 to 600 MU/minute) and gantry speeds (5·5 to 4·3°/second) was delivered consisting of seven sections of different combinations. These measurements were compared with static gantry, open field measurements and found to be within 2·39% for the DAVID device and 0·84% for the seven29. A four-section picket fence of varying DMLC speeds (0·46, 0·92, 1·84 and 2·76 cm/second) was similarly evaluated and found to be within 1·99% and 3·66% for the DAVID and seven29, respectively. For DMLC position accuracy, a picket fence arc plan was compared with a static picket fence and found to agree within 0.38% and 2.91%. Reproducibility for these three RapidArc plans was found to be within 0·30% and 2·70% for the DAVID and seven29.
The DAVID and seven29 detectors were able to perform the RapidArc quality assurance tests efficiently and accurately and the results were reproducible. Periodic verification of DMLC movement, dose rate variation and gantry speed variation relating to RapidArc delivery can be completed in a timelier manner using this equipment.
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April–June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15 years, IQR 10–27). Symptoms were mild and similar to seasonal influenza, with the exception of diarrhoea, which was reported by 27%. Eleven per cent of all cases had an underlying medical condition, similar to the general population. The majority (92%) were treated with antiviral drugs with 12% reporting adverse effects, mainly nausea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Duration of illness was significantly shorter when antivirals were given within 48 h of onset (median 5 vs. 9 days, P=0·01). No patients died, although 14 were hospitalized, of whom three required mechanical ventilation. The FF100 identified key clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infection with this novel virus in near real-time.