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Based on the data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), we statistically study the photometric properties of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and dwarf nuclei in the Virgo core (M87) region. We found an obvious negative color (g - z) gradient in GC system associate with M87, i.e. GCs in the outer regions are bluer. However, such color gradient does not exist in UCD system, neither in dwarf nuclei system around M87. In addition, we found that many UCDs are surrounded by extended, low surface brightness envelopes. The dwarf nuclei and UCDs show different spatial distributions from GCs, with dwarf nuclei and UCDs (especially for the UCDs with visible envelopes) lying at larger distances to the Virgo center. These results support the view that UCDs (at least for a fraction of UCDs) are more tied to dwarf nuclei than to GCs.
The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn–soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (P<0.0001) in Trial 1 and slightly reduced (P<0.10) in Trial 2, but only weak linear relationships between egg weight and dietary V+C concentration were established. No negative effect of V+C level was observed for egg quality parameters. In contrast, certain parameters (i.e. Haugh units, yolk color) were improved by feeding low V+C diets (P<0.05). Hemolysis of RBCs was higher in hens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.
Discovery of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in the past 15 years blurs the once thought clear division between classic globular clusters (GCs) and early-type galaxies. The intermediate nature of UCDs, which are larger and more massive than typical GCs but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies, has triggered hot debate on whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin or merely the most extreme GCs. Previous studies of various scaling relations, stellar populations and internal dynamics did not give an unambiguous answer to the primary origin of UCDs. In this contribution, we present the first ever detailed study of global dynamics of 97 UCDs (rh ≳ 10 pc) associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. We found that UCDs follow a different radial number density profile and different rotational properties from GCs. The orbital anisotropies of UCDs are tangentially-biased within ~ 40 kpc of M87 and become radially-biased with radius further out. In contrast, the blue GCs, which have similar median colors to our sample of UCDs, become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc. Our analysis suggests that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the scenario that most UCDs originated from the tidally threshed dwarf galaxies.
De Haas-van Alphen oscillations of the organic metal θ-(ET)4ZnBr4(C6H4Cl2) are studied in pulsed magnetic fields up to 81 T. The long decay time of the pulse allows determining reliable field-dependent amplitudes of Fourier components with frequencies up to several kiloteslas. The Fourier spectrum is in agreement with the model of a linear chain of coupled orbits. In this model, all the observed frequencies are linear combinations of the frequency linked to the basic orbit α and to the magnetic-breakdown orbit β.
According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas–poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 – 29 mag.arcsec−2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
In around ≈25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is quite different than that in spiral galaxies however, with harsher radiation fields, deeper potentials and high metallicity and alpha-element abundances. Here we report on one element of our multi-faceted programme to understand the similarities and differences between the gas reservoirs in spirals and ETGs. We use spatially resolved observations from the CARMA mm-wave interferometer to investigate the size of the molecular reservoirs in the the CO-rich ATLAS3D ETGs (survey described in Alatalo et al. 2012, submitted). We find that the molecular gas extent is smaller in absolute terms in ETGs than in late-type galaxies, but that the size distributions are similar once scaled by the galaxies optical/stellar characteristic scale-lengths (Fig 1, left). Amongst ETGs, we find that the extent of the molecular gas is independent of the kinematic misalignment, despite the many reasons why misaligned gas might have a smaller extent. The extent of the molecular gas does depend on environment, with Virgo cluster ETGs having less extended molecular gas reservoirs (Fig 1, right). Whatever the cause, this further emphases that cluster ETGs follow different evolutionary pathways from those in the field. Full details of this work will be presented in Davis et al. (2012), submitted.
Recently, massive early-type galaxies have shed their red-and-dead moniker, thanks to the discovery that many host residual star formation. As part of the ATLAS-3D project, we have conducted a complete, volume-limited survey of the molecular gas in 260 local early-type galaxies with the IRAM-30m telescope and the CARMA interferometer, in an attempt to understand the fuel powering this star formation. We find that around 22% of early-type galaxies in the local volume host molecular gas reservoirs. This detection rate is independent of galaxy luminosity and environment. Here we focus on how kinematic misalignment measurements and gas-to-dust ratios can be used to put constraints on the origin of the cold ISM in these systems. The origin of the cold ISM seems to depend strongly on environment, with misaligned, dust poor gas (indicative of externally acquired material) being common in the field but completely absent in rich groups and in the Virgo cluster. Very massive galaxies also appear to be devoid of accreted gas. This suggests that in the field mergers and/or cold gas accretion dominate the gas supply, while in clusters internal secular processes become more important. This implies that environment has a strong impact on the cold gas properties of ETGs.
Merging systems at low redshift provide the unique opportunity to study the processes related to star formation in a variety of environments that presumably resemble those seen at higher redshifts. Previous studies of distant starbursting galaxies suggest that stars are born in turbulent gas, with a higher efficiency than in MW-like spirals. We have investigated in detail the turbulent-driven regime of star-formation in nearby colliding galaxies combining high resolution VLA B array Hi maps and UV GALEX observations. With these data, we could check predictions of our state-of-the-art simulations of mergers, such as the global sharp increase of the fraction of dense gas, as traced by the SFR, with respect to the diffuse gas traced by Hi during the merging stage, following the increased velocity dispersion of the gas. We present here initial results obtained studying the SFR-Hi relation at 4.5 kpc resolution. We determined SFR/Hi mass ratios that are higher in the external regions of mergers than in the outskirts of isolated spirals, though both environments are Hi dominated. SFR/Hi increases towards the central regions following the decrease of the atomic gas fraction and possibly the increased star–formation efficiency. These results need to be checked with a larger sample of systems and on smaller spatial scales. This is the goal of the on-going Chaotic THINGS project that ultimately will allow us to determine why starbursting galaxies deviate from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between SFR density and gas surface density.
We analysed the Spitzer maps of Stephan's Quintet in order to investigate the nature of the dust emission associated with the X-ray emitting regions of the large scale intergalactic shock and of the group halo. This emission can in principle be powered by dust-gas particle collisions, thus providing efficient cooling of the hot gas. However the results of our analysis suggest that the dust emission from those regions is mostly powered by photons. Nonetheless dust collisional heating could be important in determining the cooling of the IGM gas and the large scale star formation morphology observed in SQ.
Microstructural characterization (Focused Ion Beam and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging) was performed on cross-sections of contacts in thick Electro Chemical Deposition copper metallization of System In Package Integrated Circuits. It was shown that the lower growth rate of ECD-Cu in the AlSiCu – barrier Ti – PVD-Cu – ECD-Cu layer stacking is related to a local higher resistivity induced by the presence of a great number of almost planar grain boundaries in the PVD-Cu layer, which are perpendicular to the growth axis. This morphology is a consequence of the almost heteroepitaxial growth of Ti layer on AlSiCu layer.
The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a CFHT Large Program that is using the wide field of view capabilities of the MegaCam camera to map the entire Virgo Cluster from its core to virial radius. The observing strategy has been optimized to detect very low surface brightness structures in the cluster, including intracluster stellar streams and faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We present here the current status of this ongoing survey, with an emphasis on the detection and analysis of the very low-mass galaxies in the cluster that have been revealed by the NGVS.
The NGVS is mapping the Virgo Cluster with a depth making possible to detect very low surface brightness (LSB) structures, such as faint dwarf galaxies. To extract these from just above the sky noise and make statistical studies of their properties, we use the software MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy). This segmentation software uses a Markovian approach to classify pixels and identify low-surface brightness structures.
We consider a tight binding model for magnetic systems, in which we allow atoms to become charged and to interact via the long ranged Coulomb interaction to a published tight binding model; this is then applied to the study defects in ferromagnetic iron. We encounter several problems with achieving self consistency with existing schemes. To address the issue of instability and slow convergency we developed a robust, efficient scheme for charge and spin self consistency. This is based on minimizing an extended form of the Harris-Foulkes functional which includes spin, leading to a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. We then apply this to both bulk and defect calculations for iron.
The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry/wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra–deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the ATLAS3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec−2 in the g-band. Initial results for two galaxies are presented here.
The molecular gas content of local early-type galaxies is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution. First, as part of the ATLAS3D survey, we present the first complete, large (260 objects), volume-limited single-dish survey of CO in normal local early-type galaxies. We find a surprisingly high detection rate of 22%, independent of luminosity and at best weakly dependent on environment. Second, the extent of the molecular gas is constrained with CO synthesis imaging, and a variety of morphologies is revealed. The kinematics of the molecular gas and stars are often misaligned, implying an external gas origin in over a third of the systems, although this behaviour is drastically diffferent between field and cluster environments. Third, many objects appear to be in the process of forming regular kpc-size decoupled disks, and a star formation sequence can be sketched by piecing together multi-wavelength information on the molecular gas, current star formation, and young stars. Last, early-type galaxies do not seem to systematically obey all our usual prejudices regarding star formation, following the standard Schmidt-Kennicutt law but not the far infrared-radio correlation. This may suggest a greater diversity in star formation processes than observed in disk galaxies. Using multiple molecular tracers, we are thus starting to probe the physical conditions of the cold gas in early-types.
Polymer networks synthesized by UV-curing of Oligo[(ε-caprolactone)-co-glycolide]dimethacrylates are hydolytically degradable. Their architecture with covalent netpoints and crystallizable domains is the molecular basis for the potential shape-memory capability. The molecular weight and glycolide content of the oligomeric precursors can be varied over a broad range of compositions to tailor the thermomechanical properties of the polymer network while having only a minor influence on the shape-memory effect. Recently, drug incorporation adding controlled drug release as further functionality to the polymer network was demonstrated . Here, enoxacin and ethacridine lactate as test drugs were incorporated into the networks by soaking. Alternatively, defined amounts of ethacridine lactate were mixed with the precursors, which were subsequently crosslinked to the drug containing networks. The composition of the oligomeric precursors in molecular weight between 3800 and 12800 g�mol-1 and in glycolide content ϝG between 0 and 30 mol-% to explore the influence of the drug incorporation on networks with varying compositions while retaining properties and functionalities. Polymer networks prepared from precursors with ϝG ? 14 mol-% and Mn ? 6900 g�mol-1 have a Tsw of 35-52 �C and sufficient crystallinity to ensure a high shape fixity in the programming step. These limits have to be kept to ensure the desired multifunctionality, otherwise drug incorporation can have an undesired influence on thermal, mechanical, and shape-memory properties.
We experimentally test three existing models of organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) which are all based on carrier spin dynamics. We first prove that hyperfine field originating from the hydrogen nuclei in organic materials is necessary for observing OMAR by studying C60 sandwich devices using several different electrode materials. We show that C60, unlike many other organic semiconductors, does not exhibit any intrinsic OMAR effect. However, we find that as soon as the carriers in C60 are brought in proximity with hydrogen-containing compounds, either in the form of a polymeric electrode, or side-chain substituents, a weak OMAR effect is observed. Next, we perform charge-induced absorption and electroluminescence spectroscopy in a polyfluorene organic magnetoresistive device. Our experiments allow us to measure the singlet exciton, triplet exciton and polaron densities in a live device under an applied magnetic field, and to distinguish between three models of OMAR. These models are based on different spin-dependent interactions, namely exciton formation, triplet exciton-polaron quenching and bipolaron formation. We show that the singlet exciton, triplet exciton and polaron densities and conductivity all increase with increasing magnetic field. Our data are inconsistent with the exciton formation and triplet-exciton polaron quenching models.
We describe magnetic field sensors based on a recently discovered magnetoresistance (MR) effect in nonmagnetic organic semiconductor sandwich devices. The MR effect reaches up to 10% in a magnetic field of 10 mT at room temperature. We perform an extensive experimental characterization of this effect. We found that the MR effect is only weakly temperature dependent and does not depend on sign and direction of the applied magnetic field. We also measured the device response to alternating magnetic fields up to 100 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, the discovered MR effect is not adequately described by any of the MR mechanisms known to date.
Head-on collisions of spiral galaxies can bring large quantities of gas out of spiral disks and into the intergalactic medium. Only two clear cases (UGC 12914/5 and UGC 813/6) of such collisions are known (Condon et al. 1993, 2002) and in both cases several 109 M⊙ of neutral gas is found in the bridge between the two galaxies which are now separating. About half of the gas is molecular. The gas, atomic or molecular, is brought out by collisions between clouds, which then acquire an intermediate velocity and end up between the galaxies. The bridges contain no old stars and in each case only one HII region despite the large masses of molecular gas, such that the star formation efficiency is very low in the bridges. The collisions occurred 20 – 50 million years ago, much greater than the collapse time for dense cores. We (Braine et al. 2003, 2004) show that collisions between molecular clouds, and not only between atomic gas clouds, bring gas into the bridges. It is not currently known whether the galaxies and bridges are bound or whether they will continue to separate, releasing several 109 M⊙ of neutral gas into the intergalactic medium.
We investigate the process of galaxy formation as can be observed in the only currently forming galaxies - the so-called Tidal Dwarf Galaxies, hereafter TDGs - through observations of the molecular gas detected via its CO (Carbon Monoxide) emission. Molecular gas is a key element in the galaxy formation process, providing the link between a cloud of gas and a bona fide galaxy. We have now detected CO in 9 TDGs with an overall detection rate of 80%, showing that molecular gas is abundant in TDGs, up to a few 108M⊙. The CO emission coincides both spatially and kinematically with the HI emission, indicating that the molecular gas forms from the atomic hydrogen where the HI column density is high. A possible trend of more evolved TDGs having greater molecular gas masses is observed, in accord with the transformation of HI into H2. Although uncertainties are still large for individual objects as the geometry is unknown, we find that the “dynamical” masses of TDGs, estimated from the CO line widths, do not seem to be greater than the “visible” masses (HI + H2 + a stellar component), i.e., TDGs require no dark matter. We provide evidence that TDGs are self-gravitating entities, implying that we are witnessing the ensemble of processes in galaxy formation: concentration of large amounts of gas in a bound object, condensation of the gas, which is atomic at this point, to form molecular gas and the subsequent star formation from the dense molecular component.