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This paper aimed to: retrospectively analyse single-centre results in terms of surgical success, respiratory outcomes and adverse events after short-term follow up in obstructive sleep apnoea patients treated with upper airway stimulation; and evaluate the correlation between pre-operative drug-induced sleep endoscopy findings and surgical success.
A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted, including a consecutive series of obstructive sleep apnoea patients undergoing implantation of an upper airway stimulation system.
Forty-four patients were included. The total median Apnoea–Hypopnea Index and oxygen desaturation index significantly decreased from 37.6 to 8.3 events per hour (p < 0.001) and from 37.1 to 15.9 events per hour (p < 0.001), respectively. The surgical success rate was 88.6 per cent, and did not significantly differ between patients with or without complete collapse at the retropalatal level (p = 0.784). The most common therapy-related adverse event reported was (temporary) stimulation-related discomfort.
Upper airway stimulation is an effective and safe treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with continuous positive airway pressure intolerance or failure. There was no significant difference in surgical outcome between patients with tongue base collapse with or without complete anteroposterior collapse at the level of the palate.
Schizophrenia is associated with lower intelligence and poor educational performance relative to the general population. This is, to a lesser degree, also found in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. It is unclear whether bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and their relatives have similar lower intellectual and educational performance as that observed in schizophrenia.
This cross-sectional study investigated intelligence and educational performance in two outpatient samples [494 BD-I patients, 952 schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ) patients], 2231 relatives of BD-I and SCZ patients, 1104 healthy controls and 100 control siblings. Mixed-effects and regression models were used to compare groups on intelligence and educational performance.
BD-I patients were more likely to have completed the highest level of education (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.66–2.70) despite having a lower IQ compared to controls (β = −9.09, s.e. = 1.27, p < 0.001). In contrast, SCZ patients showed both a lower IQ (β = −15.31, s.e. = 0.86, p < 0.001) and lower educational levels compared to controls. Siblings of both patient groups had significantly lower IQ than control siblings, but did not differ on educational performance. IQ scores did not differ between BD-I parents and SCZ parents, but BD-I parents had completed higher educational levels.
Although BD-I patients had a lower IQ than controls, they were more likely to have completed the highest level of education. This contrasts with SCZ patients, who showed both intellectual and educational deficits compared to healthy controls. Since relatives of BD-I patients did not demonstrate superior educational performance, our data suggest that high educational performance may be a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder patients.
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