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To investigate the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and vitamin A status among school-aged children in rural Kazakhstan and identify factors associated with anaemia in this population.
A cross-sectional design.
School-aged children in rural Kazakhstan.
Socio-economic and anthropometric information was collected from 159 school-aged children living in the Kzyl-Orda region of Kazakhstan. Blood samples were collected and the concentrations of haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, serum ferritin (SF), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), serum retinol and β-carotene, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TS) and other haematological indices were measured.
Among the 159 children, the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency defined by the multiple criteria model (SF, TS and EP) was 27% and 13%, respectively. Nine per cent had iron-deficiency anaemia and 21% had serum retinol value <1.05 μmol l−1. Mean SF and serum iron concentrations and TS were significantly lower in anaemic children than in their non-anaemic peers, while TIBC and EP were significantly higher in children with anaemia. Hb was significantly correlated with serum iron and retinol concentrations. Serum retinol and SF concentrations and mean corpuscular volume were significantly correlated with Hb by multiple regression analysis.
Anaemia among school-aged children in rural Kazakhstan appears to be related to iron indices and vitamin A status.
The need for the application of international standards has been evolving over the last decade. Consistency is needed not just in how we respond, but in when we respond. The discussions in this theme reflected on the progress of standard setting both at the local level and internationally.
Details of the methods used are provided in the introductory paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. The chairs then presided over a workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of action plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates.
Main points developed during the presentations and discussion included: (1) requirement of standards of care for ALL disasters and core parameters, (2) process and procedure is best when there is interagency collaboration and coordination, (3) problems in disasters are management-related, not skill-related, and (4) standards of care must encompass evolving emergencies (e.g., emerging diseases, landmines).
The action plans for Theme 5 included: (1) develop positions of standards for management, health and public health, education and training, research, psychosocial aspects, and disaster plans; (2) advocate for actions and task forces to deal with evolving and emerging disasters, terrorism, landmines, and emerging infections; (3) proactively work to advocate and facilitate the multidisciplinary and multiorganizational requirements for disaster management; and (4) develop a resource list of interdisciplinary institutions and activities organized by country and topic including the design and maintenance of a website.
There is a clear need for international standards for the management of disasters. Positions and advocacy for these positions are required to define and implement such standards.