To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Giardiasis, caused by Giardia duodenalis, is a leading cause of diarrhoea in resource-poor countries. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology of Giardia in Africa, we undertook a robust study to comprehend the distribution and prevalence of Giardia infection in humans, animals and their dispersal in the environment. Our protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022317653). Deep literature search from 5 electronic databases, namely, AJOL, Google scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Springer Link was performed using relevant keywords. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Cochran's Q and the I2-statistic. More than 500 eligible studies published from 1 January 1980 until 22 March 2022 were retrieved. In humans, exactly 48 124 Giardia spp. infection cases were registered from the 494 014 stool samples examined resulting in a pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) of 8.8% using microscopy. Whereas copro-antigen tests and molecular diagnostic methods generated PPE of 14.3 and 19.5%, respectively, with HIV+ subjects and those with diarrhoeatic stool having infection rates of 5.0 and 12.3%, respectively. The PPE of Giardia spp. infection in animals using molecular methods was 15.6%, which was most prevalent in pigs (25.2%) with Nigeria registering the highest prevalence at 20.1%. The PPE of Giardia spp. contamination from waterbodies was 11.9% from a total of 7950 samples which were detected using microscopy, with Tunisia documenting the highest infection rate of 37.3%. This meta-analysis highlights the necessity of ‘One Health’ approach for consolidated epidemiological studies and control of giardiasis in the African continent.
Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne disease of economic importance, relevant in the international movement of equids. The causative agents are at least two apicomplexan protozoan parasites Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. To date, there is no study that estimates global and regional exposure of equids to EP. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence and heterogeneity of EP using random-effects model. Six electronic databases were searched for publications on EP and assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 66 eligible studies published between 1990 and 2019 and representing 24 041 equids were included. The overall pooled prevalence estimates (PPEs) of B. caballi was 22.3% (95% CI 21.7–22.8), while the overall PPE for T. equi was 29.4% (95% CI 28.7–30.0). The overall pooled prevalence due to co-infection with both parasites was 11.8% (95% CI 11.32–12.32). Also, subgroup analysis according to sex, age, diagnostic technique, equid species, region and publication years showed a substantial degree of heterogeneity across studies computed for both B. caballi and T. equi infections in equids. Awareness of the current status of EP globally will alert the relevant authorities and stakeholders where necessary on the need for better preventive and control strategies against the disease.
Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are biological agents responsible for equine piroplasmosis (EP). We conducted a robust and extensive epidemiological study in Nigeria on the prevalence and risk factors of EP. Blood (468, both horses and donkeys) and ticks (201 pools) were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA of equine piroplasms was observed in tick pools with B. caballi amplified in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi only [minimum infection rate (MIR) of 7.6%] while T. equi was observed in R. e. evertsi (MIR, 61.6%), Hyalomma dromedarii (MIR, 23.7%) and H. truncatum (MIR, 50.0%). Overall results showed that 196/468 (41.9%) animals were positive for equine piroplasms (both B. caballi and T. equi). The prevalence for T. equi was 189/468 (40.4%) compared to 7/468 (1.5%) for B. caballi. In the horses and donkeys, respectively, the prevalence for T. equi was (39.9%; 112/281) and (41.2%; 77/187) compared with (1.4%; 4/281) and (1.6%; 3/187) due to B. caballi. Our analysis showed that location (Jigawa state), Talon breed, horses used for work and reproduction, unsatisfactory husbandry practices, contact with other mammals are risk factors that associated positivity to T. equi infection in horses, whilst horses kept on intensive management appeared to be less prone to infection. On the other hand, Jangora breed of donkeys and location (Jigawa state) are risk factors to infection with T. equi in donkeys. Findings suggest the persistence of EP in equids and ticks in Nigeria.
Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.
Tabanids are haematophagous flies feeding on livestock and wildlife. In the absence of information on the relationship of tabanid flies and protozoan parasites in South Africa and Zambia, the current study was aimed at characterizing tabanid flies collected in these two countries as well as detecting protozoan parasites they are harbouring. A total of 527 tabanid flies were collected whereby 70·2% were from South Africa and 29·8% were from Zambia. Morphological analysis revealed a total of five different genera collected from the sampled areas namely: Ancala, Atylotus, Haematopota, Philoliche and Tabanus. DNA extracted from South African Tabanus par and Tabanus taeniola tested positive for the presence of Trypanosoma congolense (Savannah) and Trypanosoma theileri whilst one member from T. par was positive for Trypanosoma brucei species. DNA extracted from Zambian tabanid flies tested positive for the presence of Besnoitia species at 1·27% (2/157), Babesia bigemina 5·73% (9/157), Theileria parva 30·11% (30/157) and 9·82% (14/157) for Trypanosoma evansi. This study is the first to report on relationship of Babesia and Theileria parasites with tabanid flies. Further investigations are required to determine the role of tabanids in transmission of the detected protozoan parasites in livestock and wildlife in South Africa and Zambia.
Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (∼25–50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (∼10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections.
Corridor disease is an acute, fatal disease of cattle caused by buffalo-adapted Theileria parva. This is a nationally controlled disease in South Africa and strict control measures apply for the movement of buffalo, which includes mandatory testing for the presence of T. parva and other controlled diseases. Accurate diagnosis of the T. parva carrier state in buffalo using the official real-time hybridization PCR assay (Sibeko et al.2008), has been shown to be affected by concurrent infection with T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites. We describe the Hybrid II assay, a real-time hybridization PCR method, which compares well with the official hybridization assay in terms of specificity and sensitivity. It is, however, not influenced by mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites and is as such a significant improvement on the current hybridization assay.
Buffalo-adapted Theileria parva causes Corridor disease in cattle. Strict control measures therefore apply to the movement of buffalo in South Africa and include mandatory testing of buffalo for the presence of T. parva. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). The effect that mixed T. parva and T. sp. (buffalo)-like infections have on accurate T. parva diagnosis was investigated in this study. In vitro mixed infection simulations indicated PCR signal suppression at 100 to 1000-fold T. sp. (buffalo) excess at low T. parva parasitaemia. Suppression of PCR signal was found in field buffalo with mixed infections. The T. parva-positive status of these cases was confirmed by selective suppression of T. sp. (buffalo) amplification using a locked nucleic acid clamp and independent assays based on the p67, p104 and Tpr genes. The incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, while the prevalence in buffalo outside the endemic area is currently low. A predicted increase of T. sp. (buffalo)-like infections can affect future diagnoses where mixed infections occur, prompting the need for improvements in current diagnostics.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.