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To compare cognitive phenotypes of participants with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), estimate progression to MCI/dementia by phenotype and assess classification error with machine learning.
Dataset consisted of 163 participants with SCD and 282 participants with aMCI from the Czech Brain Aging Study. Cognitive assessment included the Uniform Data Set battery and additional tests to ascertain executive function, language, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial skills, and processing speed. Latent profile analyses were used to develop cognitive profiles, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk of progression. Random forest machine learning algorithms reported cognitive phenotype classification error.
Latent profile analysis identified three phenotypes for SCD, with one phenotype performing worse across all domains but not progressing more quickly to MCI/dementia after controlling for age, sex, and education. Three aMCI phenotypes were characterized by mild deficits, memory and language impairment (dysnomic aMCI), and severe multi-domain aMCI (i.e., deficits across all domains). A dose–response relationship between baseline level of impairment and subsequent risk of progression to dementia was evident for aMCI profiles after controlling for age, sex, and education. Machine learning more easily classified participants with aMCI in comparison to SCD (8% vs. 21% misclassified).
Cognitive performance follows distinct patterns, especially within aMCI. The patterns map onto risk of progression to dementia.
Research shows that lipid levels may be associated with cognitive function, particularly among women. We aimed to examine total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and HDL/LDL ratio in relation to cognitive performance, measured with six well-established cognitive domains and a composite cognitive score (CCS).
In this cross-sectional study, biomarkers and neuropsychological assessment were available for 141 adults with MMSE scores ≥ 24 (mean age = 69 years, 47% female, mean education = 14.4 years) attending a neuropsychological evaluation. Ordinary least squares regressions were adjusted for age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms in Model 1 and also for apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) status in Model 2.
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was associated with better CCS (β = 0.24; p = 0.014). This association was significant among women (β = 0.30; p = 0.026) and not among men (β = 0.20; p = 0.124). HDL-C was also related to attention/working memory (β = 0.24; p = 0.021), again only among women (β = 0.37; p = 0.012) and not men (β = 0.15; p = 0.271). Adjusting for APOE4 yielded significance for high HDL-C and CCS (β = 0.24; p = 0.022).
HDL-C was the main lipoprotein affecting cognitive function, with results somewhat more pronounced among women. Research should investigate the possibility of finding ways to boost HDL-C levels to potentially promote cognitive function.
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