To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The article presents the results of the search for microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci with tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide tandem repeat motifs in the draft de novo assembly of the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) genome and the development of convenient relatively highly and moderately polymorphic markers that can be easily genotyped even by simple gel electrophoresis. In total, 64 pairs of oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for 32 detected microsatellite loci were designed and tested. Based on the testing results, 10 most promising polymorphic loci were selected and genotyped in eight natural populations of Siberian fir. Homologous microsatellite loci in the genome of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) were also identified by mapping Siberian fir contigs, containing SSR loci to the European silver fir genome assembly. A multiplex panel of 14 universal microsatellite loci was developed and genotyped in samples from four natural populations of A. alba and a small sample of eight Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach) trees.
Oaks are model species due to their importance in various ecosystems, worldwide distribution, high economic value and emerging genomic resources. As such, knowledge on population differentiation across their distribution range is of high importance for sustainable forest management. As in most angiosperms, chloroplasts are maternally (via seeds) inherited in oak species and acorns are dispersed over comparably short distances. Consequently, chloroplast markers reveal comparatively high differentiation between populations, making them highly viable for the analysis of historic migration patterns and the certification of reproductive material. Despite the existence of various white oak (section: Quercus) chloroplast markers, red oak (section: Lobatae) chloroplast markers remain limited. Northern red oak is one of the most important North American oak species and a widespread non-native plantation tree species in European forests. We took advantage of chloroplast genomes of Q. rubra L. and related oak chloroplast genomes to develop a set of robust and easy-to-use chloroplast microsatellite primers for northern red oak. Furthermore, we tested transferability of those novel red oak primer pairs to Q. robur L. and Q. petraea Matt. Liebl. The new set of fifteen polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers revealed three additional northern red oak haplotypes after screening 80 northern red oak individuals representing seven haplotypes, identified based on formerly available markers. Therefore, they provide a higher resolution of haplotypes as compared to currently available markers.
The range-wide genetic structure of the highly productive and valuable timber species Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. is still insufficiently studied, although published data based on different genetic markers (nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites, AFLP, RFLP and isozymes) demonstrated relatively low population structure. However, more genetic markers are needed to increase the efficiency of population genetic studies in coast redwood. Therefore, we developed seven nuclear and five chloroplast microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the complete chloroplast genome sequence, respectively. All selected markers were tested in a range-wide sample representing trees from 16 locations. They are highly polymorphic microsatellite loci with the number of alleles ranging from 3 to 17, and the number of effective alleles from 1.1 to 2.48. Coast redwood is a hexaploid species, and its chloroplasts are paternally inherited. Therefore, the chloroplast SSR markers are especially useful for this species, because their genotyping is not affected by nuclear genome ploidy. Moreover, they showed high gene diversity for each locus within and across all populations and can be used to study range-wide population genetic structure, pollen-based gene flow and long-distance gene transfer. Coast redwood can propagate clonally, and nuclear polymorphic EST-SSRs can be used for clonal identification. They are linked with expressed genes and their variation can reflect variation in genes under selection, including those that could be potentially important for local adaptation of coast redwood considering the threat of climate change.
Spatial distribution of broadleaf weeds within 14 North Carolina soybean fields was characterized by fitting negative binomial distributions to frequency distributions of weed counts in each field. In most cases, the data could be represented by a negative binomial distribution. Estimated values of the parameter K of this distribution were small, often less than one, indicating a high degree of patchiness. The data also indicated that the population as a whole was patchy. Counts of individual species were positively correlated with each other in some fields and total weed count could be represented by a negative binomial for 12 of the 14 fields.