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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, platelet-to-lymphocyte, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios in acute rheumatic fever in children.
In this retrospective study, 182 patients with acute rheumatic fever and 173 controls were included. Complete blood count parameters, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, monocyte-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios were recorded for all the patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, monocyte-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in patients with rheumatic heart disease than patients without cardiac involvement (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels were found to have a positive correlation with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (r = 0.228, p = 0.001; r = 0.355, p = 0.001), platelet-to-lymphocyte (r = 0.227, p = 0.01; r = 0.149, p = 0.005), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios (r = 0.117, p = 0.005; r = 0.107, p = 0.044). Cardiac involvement was present in 152 (83.5%) of the patients. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, monocyte-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in patients with rheumatic heart disease than patients without cardiac involvement (p < 0.05). Patients with carditis were grouped according to mitral, aortic, or both valve involvement but there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, monocyte-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios. In addition, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in patients with Sydenham’s chorea than without chorea (p < 0.05).
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, platelet-to-lymphocyte, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios may help make the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever and its prognosis by serial measurements in follow-up but none of them tell us the severity of carditis. Also, this is the first study showing the positive correlation between Sydenham’s chorea and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, as this is the first study in the literature on this topic.
The aim of this study is to determine early changes in cardiac function of children with chronic kidney disease by using 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography.
The study included 38 children – 16 girls and 22 boys – diagnosed as having chronic kidney disease in the nephrology department with a glomerular filtration rate of <90 ml/minute/1.73 m2 for at least 3 months. A total of 37 – 15 girls and 22 boys – age- and sex-matched healthy children were included as the control group. 2D-Speckle tracking echocardiography was performed in all subjects.
The mean age was 13.45±2.8 years in patients and 12.89±3.07 years in controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and left ventricular mass index were significantly higher in patients (p<0.05). The values of mitral e, mitral a, mitral e/a ratio, and mitral deceleration time were not different between the groups. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values were lower in patients (p<0.01). Global strain values in apical long-axis 3-chamber and 2-chamber views were significantly lower in patients (p<0.05). Longitudinal, radial, and circumferential peak systolic strain values were lower in patients, but the difference was statistically significant in all segments of longitudinal view and basal segment of circumferential view (p<0.05). Radial and circumferential systolic strain rates were significantly lower in patients in all three segments (p<0.05). Moreover, early diastolic strain rate was significantly lower in longitudinal and radial apical segments and in all segments of circumferential measurements in patients. Besides, strain rate e/a ratio was significantly lower in all longitudinal segments of patients (p=0.01).
The study concluded that 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography method can determine cardiac involvement earlier than conventional echocardiography in children with chronic kidney disease having preserved ejection fraction.
Recently, mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio has emerged as a novel parameter of inflammation. No study has investigated the role of mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio in children with Kawasaki disease. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio and coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease.
Between January 2008 and January 2017, a total of 58 children with Kawasaki disease and 42 healthy subjects matched for sex and age were enrolled. Before the treatment, transthoracic echocardiography for all children was performed. Clinical and laboratory results including mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, red blood cell distribution width, and counts of platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were measured. Mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated as mean platelet volume divided by lymphocyte count.
Compared with healthy controls, mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly lower in the children with Kawasaki disease (p<0.01). A total of 14 patients (24.1%) had incomplete Kawasaki disease and 15 (25.8%) children with Kawasaki disease had coronary involvement. Mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly lower in patients with coronary artery abnormalities (p<0.01). According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed for the prediction of coronary artery abnormalities, the best cut-off point for mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio was 2.5 (area under curve=0.593, sensitivity 53.3%, specificity 51.1%).
It was first shown that the children with Kawasaki disease have lower mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio compared with control subjects. Mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio may be helpful in predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume and the presence and severity of valvular involvement in patients with rheumatic heart disease.
Between April, 2012 and December, 2015, 151 patients who were admitted to the Pediatric Cardiology Unit with diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease and 148 healthy children were included to our study. Transthoracic echocardiography for all children was performed, and the values of red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume, besides other blood count parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were recorded.
Red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in patients with rheumatic heart disease when compared with healthy controls (p<0.01). Red blood cell distribution width was positively correlated with both C-reactive protein (r=0.271, p=0.035) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.308, p=0.006). When single valve involvement was compared with both aortic valve and mitral valve involvement in the study group, red blood cell distribution width and platelet distribution width were higher in patients with double valve involvement; however, this was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
This is the first study in children with rheumatic heart disease that demonstrated significantly increased red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume levels, as well as evaluated all three parameters together. Furthermore, red blood cell distribution width values in the chronical period of acute rheumatic fever, due to the positive correlation with the other chronic inflammatory markers, may help make the diagnosis in children.
Carditis is the only manifestation of acute rheumatic fever that leads to permanent disability. Hence, its diagnosis is of paramount importance. Recently, it has been reported that Doppler echocardiography has disclosed subclinical valvar regurgitation in some patients with acute rheumatic fever manifested as isolated arthritis or pure chorea. The prognosis of such patients with acute rheumatic fever and subclinical valvitis is not clear. We aimed, therefore, prospectively to investigate the potential to diagnose patients with subclinical carditis. We examined 40 patients, aged from 7 to 16 years, with Doppler evidence of mitral and aortic regurgitation, but in the absence of any pathologic murmur. The major findings satisfying the Jones criterions were arthritis in 29 patients, chorea in 10 patients, and arthritis and erythema marginatum in one patient. Of the patients, 33 had mitral regurgitation, 6 patients had combined mitral and aortic regurgitation, and one patient had aortic regurgitation. The patients were followed over a mean period of 18.1 ± 13.9 months, the valvar regurgitation disappearing in 23 (57.5%). No significant differences were observed in the resolution of the valvitis between those treated with acetylsalicylic acid, steroids, or those receiving no treatment. It is noteworthy, nonetheless, that patients treated with steroids were the fastest to recover from valvitis (p < 0.05).
Based on our study, we suggest that subclinical valvitis demonstrated by echocardiography should now be accepted as adequate evidence for the diagnosis of carditis, and become a major diagnostic criterion for acute rheumatic fever. When managing this group of patients with subclinical disease, treatment with steroids seems to have a role in promoting early resolution of the valvitis.
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