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The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) is a unique institution with a history that is closely related to Norwegian policy regarding Svalbard, and to clever development of a highly specialised Arctic university institution by all the Norwegian universities. In practical terms, Norwegian sovereignty on the archipelago as confirmed by the Treaty of Svalbard of 1920 and regulated by the Svalbard Law of 1925, is maintained by the presence of Norwegian civil authorities and communities. Today, the “capital” Longyearbyen with its 2100 inhabitants is a modern hub for industry, education, research, logistics and tourism. Founded in 1993, UNIS has become a main contributor to this community, generating some 20% of the total economic activity. A prime motivation for establishing UNIS was to provide a supplement and alternative to the unprofitable, heavily subsidized coal mining industry, by using the location for research based education. In 2015, the mining company Store Norske Spitsbergen Kullkompani (SNSK) met with deep crisis again and significantly downscaled its coal production and work force. Thus, UNIS may play an even more important role as a cornerstone of the local community in the future. This paper discusses the establishment and development of UNIS, its organisation, capacity, and academic production in terms of student graduation and its scientific output, just as its future potential for growth is evaluated. Finally, we discuss the increasingly important role of science and education in Norwegian Svalbard policy.
Human reproduction appears to be an inefficient process, primarily because of chromosome errors in gametes and the resultant embryos. This chapter discusses the cytogenetic factors involved in miscarriage in the general population and in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. It reviews the process of meiosis in gametogenesis and highlights the importance and limitations of cytogenetic analyses of miscarriage tissue. Recently, recurrent aneuploidy has been suggested as a factor associated with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Cytogenetic analyses can be performed on miscarriage tissue using several techniques, including cell culture followed by chromosome banding, microsatellite testing and comparative genomic hybridization. Comparative genomic hybridization followed by flow cytometry may prove a powerful technique to provide chromosome results on paraffin-stored miscarriage tissue. The possibility of recurring chromosome errors as etiologic for recurring pregnancy loss, has led to the recent application of pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) for management of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.