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In South Korea, the law concerning automated external defibrillators (AEDs) states that they should be installed in specific places including apartment complexes. This study was conducted to investigate the current status and effectiveness of installation and usage of AEDs in South Korea.
Installation and usage of AEDs in South Korea is registered in the National Emergency Medical Center (NEMC) database. Compared were the installed number, usage, and annual rate of AED use according to places of installation. All data were obtained from the NEMC database.
After excluding AEDs installed in ambulances or fire engines (n = 2,003), 36,498 AEDs were registered in South Korea from 1998 through 2018. A higher number of AEDs were installed in places required by the law compared with those not required by the law (20,678 [56.7%] vs. 15,820 [43.3%]; P <.001). Among them, 11,318 (31.0%) AEDs were installed in apartment complexes. The overall annual rate of AED use was 0.38% (95% CI, 0.33-0.44). The annual rate of AED use was significantly higher in places not required by the law (0.62% [95% CI, 0.52-0.72] versus 0.21% [95% CI, 0.16-0.25]; P <.001). The annual rate of AED use in apartment complexes was 0.13% (95% CI, 0.08-0.17).
There were significant mismatches between the number of installed AEDs and the annual rate of AED use among places. To optimize the benefit of AEDs in South Korea, changes in the policy for selecting AED placement are needed.
The understanding of adhesion and survival behavior of bacterial pathogens on implant surfaces are critical to control and reduce implant-associated infections. Herein, the authors investigate the interactions of Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most prevalent causes of implant infections, with Mg–4Zn–0.5Ca implants. It was found that within 60 min of exposure, 99.1% of adherent bacteria were inactivated. The combination of unique mechanical properties, biodegradation kinetics, and antimicrobial characteristics of Mg–4Zn–0.5Ca alloy makes it a promising candidate for future implant applications.
Early replacement of a new central venous catheter (CVC) may pose a risk of persistent or recurrent infection in patients with a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). We evaluated the clinical impact of early CVC reinsertion after catheter removal in patients with CRBSIs.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with confirmed CRBSIs in 2 tertiary-care hospitals over a 7-year period.
To treat their infections, 316 patients with CRBSIs underwent CVC removal. Among them, 130 (41.1%) underwent early CVC reinsertion (≤3 days after CVC removal), 39 (12.4%) underwent delayed reinsertion (>3 days), and 147 (46.5%) did not undergo CVC reinsertion. There were no differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups, except for nontunneled CVC, presence of septic shock, and reason for CVC reinsertion. The rate of persistent CRBSI in the early CVC reinsertion group (22.3%) was higher than that in the no CVC reinsertion group (7.5%; P = .002) but was similar to that in the delayed CVC reinsertion group (17.9%; P > .99). The other clinical outcomes did not differ among the 3 groups, including rates of 30-day mortality, complicated infection, and recurrence. After controlling for several confounding factors, early CVC reinsertion was not significantly associated with persistent CRBSI (OR, 1.59; P = .35) or 30-day mortality compared with delayed CVC reinsertion (OR, 0.81; P = .68).
Early CVC reinsertion in the setting of CRBSI may be safe. Replacement of a new CVC should not be delayed in patients who still require a CVC for ongoing management.
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of three Amaranthus species (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, A. cruentus and A. caudatus) were determined by next-generation sequencing. The cp genome sequences of A. hypochondriacus, A. cruentus and A. caudatus were 150,523, 150,757 and 150,523 bp in length, respectively, each containing 84 genes with identical contents and orders. Expansion or contraction of the inverted repeat region was not observed among the three Amaranthus species. The coding regions were highly conserved with 99.3% homology in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Five genes – matK, accD, ndhJ, ccsA and ndhF – showed relatively high non-synonymous/synonymous values (Ka/Ks > 0.1). Sequence comparison identified two insertion/deletion (InDels) greater than 40 bp in length, and polymerase chain reaction markers that could amplify these InDel regions were applied to diverse Korean Genbank accessions, which could discriminate the three Amaranthus species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 62 protein-coding genes showed that the core Caryophyllales were monophyletic and Amaranthoideae formed a sister group with the Betoideae and Chenopodioideae clade. Comparing each homologous locus among the three Amaranthus species, identified eight regions with high Pi values (>0.03). Seven of these loci, except for rps19-trnH (GUG), were considered to be useful molecular markers for further phylogenetic studies.
Highly sensitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensors were realized by the integration of Si nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by using a simple and economic electroless wet etching technique. EIS sensors with NWs longer than 1 μm were observed to have considerably increased capacitance and high pH sensitivity. The pH sensitivity of the EIS sensor with 3.8 μm long NWs was 60.2 mV/pH, which is higher than the theoretical Nernstian of 59 mV/pH. The EIS sensors with NWs exhibited slightly worse pH hysteresis and drift properties than that of the conventional planar type EIS sensor. The increases in pH sensitivity, hysteresis and drift are attributable to the extended surface area of the EIS sensors enabled by the NWs.
We aimed to investigate the factors associated with a positive intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period among Korean women.
In a cross-sectional study of demographic, obstetric and socio-economic data, history of periconceptional intake of FA and awareness of the benefits of FA supplementation in pregnancy were obtained and analysed using the χ2 test, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis.
The Maternity School, Cheil General Hospital and Women’s Healthcare Center, Seoul, South Korea, between October 2005 and March 2006.
In total 1313 pregnant women participating in a two-day training course available every month.
After excluding subjects with incomplete or inconsistent data, there were 1277 women included in the analysis. Participants were aged 29·4 (sd 2·9) years and had a mean gestational age of 27·9 (sd 7·1) weeks. Only 131 (10·3 %) women took FA during the periconceptional period. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, the adjusted OR for FA supplementation was 1·79 (95 % CI 1·10, 2·91) in women who had previous spontaneous abortions, 4·10 (95 % CI 2·43, 6·78) in women who planned their pregnancy and 6·63 (95 % CI 2·08, 21·12) in those who were aware of the protective effects of FA.
Periconceptional intake of FA was more likely among Korean women with a history of previous spontaneous abortion, who planned their pregnancy or who were aware of the protective effects of FA during pregnancy. However, the proportion of women who took FA in the periconceptional period was low.
Background: A fall experienced by an elderly person is of special note because it appears to hold a reciprocal causal association with the fear of falling. This study attempts to determine the temporal relationship between the fear of falling and falling among community-dwelling elderly.
Methods: Data on falls experienced during the previous three years were obtained from 732 community-dwelling elderly people. Participants were also asked to provide detailed information about their most recent fall, including the date, time of day, place, circumstances, consequences of the fall, fear of falling, and activity limitations due to fear of falling.
Results: Those who had fallen within the past six months had over four times greater odds of a fear of falling and approximately five times greater odds of activity restriction, compared with those who had not fallen. The association decreased linearly over time, and became nonsignificant for those who had not fallen during the past 25–36 months.
Conclusions: The experience of a fall is strongly associated with an increased fear of falling, and the association appears to persist for at least two years. An elderly person who has experienced a fall requires continuous attention to prevent the development of fear as another problem, together with early intervention to counter the fear of falling.
System in package (SiP) is a superb candidate to enhance the area efficiency and performance of electronic packaging. Here, recent work on stacked chip type 3D SiP with vertically interconnected through hole vias are reported. The process includes; formation of 50um-diameter via holes, conformal deposition of SiO2 dielectric layer, deposition of Ta and Cu barrier layers, via filling by Cu electroplating, Cu/Sn bump formation for multi-chip stacking, and finally chip-to-PCB bonding using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder and ENIG pad. A prototype 3D SiP stacked up to 10 layers was successfully fabricated.
A high frequency electrical model of the through hole via was proposed and the model parameters were extracted from measured S-parameters. The proposed model was verified by TDR/TDT (time domain reflectometry/time domain transmission) and eye-diagram measurement. Contact resistances of Cu via and bump joint were presented.
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